STATE. NORMAL VALLEY CITY. N.D. Twenty-First Year New Series — Volume Four — Number Ten Catalogue Number Twenty-One MONTHLY BULLETIN OF THE §>M? Nurmal $rtpuil VALLEY CITY, NORTH DAKOTA Containing the Nineteenth Annual Report for the Scholastic Year 1910-11, with General Announcements for the Year 1911-12 Entered at the Postoffice, Valley City, North Dakota, as second-class matter, under Act of Congress, July, 1894. JUNE, 1911 V UBLISH ED MONTHLY 6 X C E P T Jl U G U S T 31$ Calendar FALL TERM, 1911 Entrance Examination and Registration. .. .Tuesday, September 26 Regular Work Begins Wednesday, September 27 Thanksgiving Thursday, November 23 Fall Term Closes Saturday, December 16 WINTER TERM, 1912 Examination and Registration Tuesday, January 2 Regular Work Begins Wednesday, January 3 Brownson Prize Open Meetings of Literary Societiess Tuesday to Friday, February 13 to 16 Washington's Birthday Wednesday, February 22 Winter Term Closes Saturday, March 23 SPRING TERM, 1912 Term Opens Tuesday, April 2 Final Inter-Society Debate Friday, April 12 Arbor Day As Appointed by the Governor Memorial Day Thursday, May 30 Term Closes Friday, June 21 COMMENCEMENT, 1912 Baccalaureate Address Sunday Evening, June 16 Exercises of the Practice School Monday Evening, June 17 Fourteenth Junior Exhibition Tuesday Evening, June 18 Recital of Music Departments "Wednesday, Evening June 19 Eighteenth Commencement Thursday Morning, June 20 Alumni Reception Thursday Noon, June 20 Distribution of Prizes and Reports Friday Morning, June 21 SUMMER SCHOOL, 1*12 Term Opens Thursday, June 27 State Board of Normal School Trustees. E. J. Taylor, President R. M. Rish worth, Vice-President F. A. Willson, Secretary . Hugh McDonald Martin Jacobson S. H. Taylor H. A. Nelson Bismarck McClusky Bathgate Valley City Minot . Mayville . Ray ADVISORY MEMBERS Geo. A. McFarland Thos. A. Hillyer For Valley City For Mayville Faculty, GEORGE^A. McFARLAND, A. M. President (Hiram College) PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION ANDREW P. HOLLIS. M. S. (University of Wisconsin, Oswego Normal School) VICE PRESIDENT AND SUPERVISOR OF PRACTICE LURA L. PERRINE, A. B. (Albion College) CUSTODIAN OF MUSEUM Department of Natural Science. lynn b. Mcmullen, b. s. (DePauw University) PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY MORRIS JOHNSON, A. B. (University of North Dakota: State Normal School, Valley City) BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY JESSE E. SWITZER, A. B. Chicago University, State Normal School, Mt. Pleasant GEOGRAPHY GRACE SCHERMERHORN (Teachers' Training School, Springfield, Illinois; Student University of Chicago) ASSISTANT IN GEOGRAPHY BESSIE L. ASHTON, B. S. (Chicago University; Kalamazoo Normal School) ASSISTANT IN GEOGRAPHY LURA L. PERRINE, A. B. (Albion College) GEOLOGY Department of English. *CHARLTON ANDREWS, Ph. B. (DePauw University; Student Universities of Chicago and Paris) Fellow Harvard University ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE *jennie b. McGregor, a. b. (University of Minnesota; Graduate Student Chicago University) ENGLISH GRAMMAR * Leave of absence 1910-11. **UNA B. HERRICK (Kelso School of Music and Dramatic Art) READING AND EXPRESSION ***ALICE W. BENHAM, A. B. (Cornell University; Cortland Normal School) READING AND EXPRESSION MAUDE BELLE RICE (Washington College of Oratory; Student Washington College of Law) FIRST YEAR RHETORICALS Department of Mathematics. JULIUS B. MEYER, M. S. (Purdue University; Student University of Chicago) MATHEMATICS GEORGE R. DAVIES, A. B. (Iowa College) ARITHMETIC HENRY W. LEVER, B. S. (Ohio University) ALGEBRA AND ATHLETICS ELSIE HADLEY WHITE, M. S. (University of Michigan) ALGEBRA AND ARITHMETIC Department of History and Social Science. WILLIAM M. WEMETT, Ph. B.; A. M. (Syracuse University) HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE FLORENCE HILL, Ph. B. (University of Chicago; State Normal School, Oshkosh) ASSISTANT IN HISTORY Department of Languages. CORA M. RAWLINS, A. M. (Northwestern University) GERMAN BLANCHE FRIDD, A. B. (University of Wisconsin; State Normal School, Valley City) ** Resigned December, 1910. *** Since January 4, 1911. Department of Theoretical and Practical Pedagogy. HUGH S. BUFFUM, Ph. D. (University of Iowa) EDUCATIONAL THEORY Department of Mental and Moral Science. GEORGE B. RANDELS, Ph. D. (University of Pennsylvania) PSYCHOLOGY Department of Domestic Science and Art. NELLIE W. FARNSWORTH (Stout Training School; State Normal School, River Falls) DOMESTIC SCIENCE NELLIE V. SPENSLEY (Stout Training School) SEWING MABEL L. MacDONALD (Stout Training School) ASSISTANT IN DOMESTIC SCIENCE Department of Manual Training. FRANK H. SELDEN (State Normal School Clarion) MANUAL TRAINING ROY H. CROSS (State Normal School Valley City) STUDENT ASSISTANT IN MANUAL TRAINING Department of Physical Education. THOMAS W. BURCKHALTER (Springfield School of Physical Education) DIRECTOR FOR MEN CHARLOTTE REY BURCKHALTER (Student Wellesley College) DIRECTOR FOR WOMEN MAUDE BELLE RICE ASSISTANT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION Department of Commercial Studies. C. C. CURTISS, A. M. (Hamilton College) PENMANSHIP AND BOOKKEEPING ANNIE S. GREENWOOD STENOGRAPHY AND BOOKKEEPING ANNA K. COOK (State Normal School, Valley City) PENMANSHIP AND COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE Department of Public School Music. FANNY C. AMIDON (New England Conservatory of Music; Institute of Musical Art) SINGING MILLIE J. FRISTAD (State Normal School, Valley City) ASSISTANT IN SINGING Department of Public School Art. MARY G. DEEM, M. C. L. (Hillsboro College; Student Teachers College) PUBLIC SCHOOL ART VERA BASSETT Chicago Art Institute; State Normal School, Valley City ASSISTANT IN PUBLIC SCHOOL ART Department of Agriculture. McNEAL C. JAMES, A. B., B. S. (University of Illinois: State Normal School, Normal) AGRICULTURE CLARENCE HENRY, B. S. Pennsylvania State College ASSISTANT IN AGRICULTURE Department of Rural School Studies. B. A. WALLACE (State Normal School, Winona) KATRINE B. MacDONALD, A. B., A. M. (University of North Dakota; State Normal School, Mayville) Post-Graduate Student, Chicago University EULA J. MILLER (State Normal School, Moorhead) The Library. MABEL G. WEST, B. L. S. (University of Illinois) LIBRARY SCIENCE LILLIAN M. PARTRIDGE ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN Additional Teachers for Summer School. JOHN A. JOHNSON, A. B. ,'University of North Dakota; State Normal School, Valley City) GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA C. V. PIERCE, A. B. (University of Minnesota) ENGLISH GRAMMAR GEORGE F. FORSTER, A. B. (Amherst College) CIVICS AND HISTORY ORLA A. BARTON (State Normal School, Oswego) ARITHMETIC ROSALIE POLLOCK PRIMARY METHODS SARA ROBERTS FLINN PRIMARY METHODS Practice Department. ANDREW P. HOLLIS, M. S. SUPERVISOR ♦ALICE J. FISHER (School of Education, Chicago; State Normal School, Valley City) CRITIC, GRADES FIRST AND SECOND FRANCES C. PORTMAN (Chicago Kindergarten College) KINDERGARTNER EULA J. MILLER (State Normal School, Moorhead) CRITIC, GRADES FIRST AND SECOND MARGARET C. BURNS (State Normal School, Oswego) CRITIC, GRADES THIRD AND FOURTH * Leave of absence 1910-11. LORA LEVENS, Ph. B. CRITIC, GRADES FIFTH AND SIXTH SUSAN W. NORTON, A. B. (Vassar College; State Normal School, Peru) CRITIC, GRADES SEVENTH AND EIGHTH CANDIS NELSON, A. M. (University of Nebraska) GENERAL CRITIC FANNY C. AMIDON SUPERVISOR OF MUSIC MARY G. DEEM SUPERVISOR OF DRAWING C. C. CURTISS SUPERVISOR OF PENMANSHIP CHARLOTTE REY BURCKHALTER SUPERVISOR OF PHYSICAL CULTURE Department of Music. HOWARD ELSON GOODSELL (Dean) VOICE JEANNETTE DEDRICK VOICE KNUTE FROYSAA (Graduate of Seminary of Christensand) VIOLIN MABEL E. UNDERWOOD, B. Mus. (Hedding College; Graduate Chicago Musical College) PIANO LILLIAN G. HEALY (New England Conservatory of Music; State Normal School, Valley City) PIANO FANNY C. AMIDON HISTORY OF MUSIC Organization of the Faculty. George A. McFarland Andrew P. Hollis Annie S. Greenwood Lura L. Perrine Morris Johnson Mabel G. West . Lillian M. Partridge President . Vice-President Secretary Curator of Museum Assistant Curator Librarian Assistant Librarian B. I. Greenlee Jennie McDonald Elizabeth Tullius Phoebe Hudson . Harlow Sherburne Lena Schmidt Office. Secretary Registrar Information Bureau Stenographer Office Boy Custodian Book Store Mrs. W. Gilbert Dormitories. Matron Other Employees. John Sad Fred Colbey Chas. F. Milner Eugene Fletcher Marshall Duncan M. Mickelson Olivia Larson Hans Anderson Hans Thompson George Rathenhoven Ole Jacobson Herman Norman Ole Brekke . Allen Williams Head Janitor and Custodian of Buildings Superintendent of Grounds Engineer Janitor Janitor Janitor Janitress Fireman Fireman Mechanic Carpenter Teamster Laborer Laborer The Purpose of the Institution. 'HE State Normal School at Valley City, North Da- kota, is maintained by the State for the purpose of training teachers. The curriculum and regulations of the school are formulated, therefore, with a direct reference to this double purpose — the instruction and training of teachers. The studies are selected with reference to their pedagogical value. It is not the aim to give a mere academic view of them. The school does aim to give the students a teacher's view of each subject, in order that he may be efficient in the education of others. The teacher's knowledge is three-fold: first, of subject matter; second, a knowledge of the subject to be taught; third, a knowledge of methods of procedure; this to be ac- quired as an art in the training school. These are the three ends, but to make these three ends efficient, the school takes great pains that all candidates for its diploma are persons of high character. General View of the Courses of Study. 1. The ten-and-a-half -montti s Course for Rural School Teachers, requiring for entrance, completion of the eighth grade and age 17 years, leading to a second grade elementary certificate. 2. The Four Year Elementary Course for Eighth Grade graduates, requiring for entrance, completion of the eighth grade or holding of a teacher's certificate. The diploma for this course is accredited as a professional certificate of the second grade for two years. When the holder has nine months' successful experience in teaching he shall be entitled to a second grade professional certificate valid for five years. 3. The One-Year Elementary Course for High School graduates. Only graduates of first class High Schools, or those having 45 credits as shown by state completion cer- tificates, are admitted to this course, which requires 15 term VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL units for completion. The diploma from this course is ac- credited as a professional certificate of the second grade for two years. After nine month's successful teaching, the holder receives a second grade professional certificate, valid for five years. 4. The Five-Year Advanced Course for Eighth Grade graduates. Completion of the eighth grade is required for admission and the course includes 12 term units in addition to the four-year Elementary course. See details of this Course on pag^e 17. The diploma granted at the completion of this course is accredited as a second grade professional certificate for two years, and w r hen the holder has had nine month's successful experience in teaching, he is entitled to a second grade professional certificate, valid for life. 5. The Two-Year Advanced Course for High School graduates. This Course is open to graduates of High Schools of first class, or students from other High Schools who have 45 credits as shown by state completion certificates. It con- sists of one-year elementary course for High School graduates and 12 term credits to be made from the list of subjects shown on page 17. 6. The Two-Year Special Courses for High School gradu- ates. Special courses are offered in : Domestic Science. Manual Training. Commercial Subjects. Kindergarten. Music. Drawing. . A combined course of Music and Drawing. Physical Education. These special courses are offered only to High School grad- uates or students from High Schools who can present 45 credits as show T n by state completion certificates. A special diploma is granted upon the completion of anyone of these courses, which after nine months' successful experience in teaching entitles the holder to a second grade professional certificate, VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL valid for life, and authorizes the holder to teach the special subject covered by his course of study. 7. The One-Year Special Courses for graduates of Normal Schools. Graduates of this school or others of equal rank may be admitted to the special courses mentioned in Group 6 without being required to take the professional work embraced in these courses. They may, therefore, expect to complete the two-year special course in one year. Courses In Detail. Course I. Rural School Course. Ten and one-half months. Fall Winter Spring Summer Reading Language and Language and Civics Geography Grammar Grammar Physiology El. Agriculture Geography Arithmetic and Hygiene U. S. History El. Agriculture El. Agriculture Arithmetic Singing El. Pedagogy El. Pedagogy El. Pedagogy Penmanship U. S. History Including Including Phys. Culture Spelling Observation Practice Twice a week) Physical Culture Drawing Physical Culture (Twice a week) Word Analysis Physical Culture (Twice a week) The State Normal School has only recently recognized the fact that the Rural School Teacher has conditions and problems to confront that the grade teacher in town does not have. The State Legislature has recently authorized a special course for the training of Rural School teachers. This course may be completed, at present, in ten and one- half months. It is expected, however, that before long, the course will be lengthened. Those who now complete it re- ceive a second grade certificate. Later, if they return to the Normal School for a more extensive course, they will receive one year's credit upon either the four or five year course. The course is administered by special instructors whose ex- perience with Rural Schools entitles them to leadership in such work. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Course II. The Four-year Elementary Course. FIRST YEAR Fall * Arithmetic <% Algebra " Geography * Reading * Agriculture Winter * Arithmetic •Algebra *Geography T Singing &' Pen 'ship Agriculture Spring t- Grammar "Algebra •Geography ""Singing & Pen' Agriculture ship SECOND YEAR Fall " Rhetoric Elective ** Grammar \Plane Geometry *- Dra wing and Chorus Winter 'Rhetoric Elective ^American History * American History Plane Geom^t™- xq^i,-/i n~~~~~± J "Plane Geometry ■^Drawing and Chorus "Rhetoric Elective Spring s Solid Geometry ^Drawing and Chorus THIRD YEAR Fall * Zoology or Botany > General History -" Psychology •■■•Civics Elective Winter Zoology or Botany ""General History ""Psychology ^English Literature Elective Spring -.Physiology -♦General History 'Psychology English Literature Elective FOURTH YEAR Fall - Physics ^ School Management Review Grammar •Practice ••General Methods (6 weeks) — Penmanship Method (6 weeks) Winter Physics History of Education Review Arithmetic ^Practice Reading Methods (6 weeks) ^Singing Methods (6 weeks) Spring "Physics * Philosophy of , Education T~Review Geography f "Practice |-Review History The above outline shows how a student mav start in the *all term of the first year and complete all studies of the Elementary course in four years. But students may start any term, as all the studies of the first year are offered each term. It is best, however, to begin in the Fall term, since the second and third year studies begin only in the Fall term The intending student will notice that six electives are permitted in this course. This means that he mav, where electives are indicated, select his studies from any of the subjects offered in the institution. In addition to the studies VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL mentioned in the above outline, he may take six units in the Commercial branches, or six terms in Domestic Science, or six terms' work in Manual Training, or any combination of these studies. It is recommended, however, that he take all of his electives in one line of work. The student is also re- minded that he should begin any such course of electives as soon as possible in his school career, and as may be arranged for him by his faculty adviser. It w T ill be observed that the student has two full years of electives, and if he chooses to remain in the school five years and take either the advanced or one of the special courses, he may prosecute his special electives through three years. It is required that the student presented for graduation have 60 term credits, 54 of which are required as indicated in the outline, the remaining six he may elect from the following list: Latin, German, wSocial Science, Manual Training, Domestic Science, English Literature, Expression, Commercial Study, Sciences, Advanced Agriculture. Course III. One-Year Elementary Course for High School Graduates. Fall Winter Spring Psychology Review Grammar School Management General and Penmanship Methods Practice Psychology Review Arithmetic History of Education Reading and Singing Methods Practice Psychology Review Geography Philosophy of Education Review History Practice The One-Year Elementary Course for Graduates of High Schools consists of the work indicated just above. In all, 15 term credits, all of which are required. Every study is offered every term, so that a High School graduate may enter any term in the year and complete the course after three term's attendance. Two Summer Schools count as one term. No work done in High School is accepted as a substitute for any of the work in this course. Standings will be accepted, how- ever, from similar Normal Schools. Course IV. The Five-year Advanced Course for Eighth Grade Graduates. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL First, second and third years of this course are the same as for Course 2, (The Elementary Four-year Course). The fourth and fifth years might be arranged as follows: FOURTH YEAR Fall Physics School Management General Methods (6 weeks) Penmanship Methods (6 weeks) Advanced Psychology Elective Winter Physics History of Education Reading Methods (6 weeks) Singing Methods (6 weeks) Advanced Psychology Elective Spring Physics Philosophy of Education Review History Advanced Psychology Elective FIFTH YEAR Fall School Administration Review Grammar Practice Teaching Elective Winter School Administration Review Arithmetic Practice Teaching Elective Spring School Administration Review Geography Practice Teaching Elective Introduction to Philosophy, Ethics and Aesthetics may be elected in place of either Advanced Psychology or School Administration. This Course is what might be called a strictly Professional or Teachers Course. It should be noticed that students of this course have the six electives provided for in the four year course and in addition, four of the following three term studies: 1. Advanced American History 3 credits. 2. Modern European History 3 credits. 3. Advanced Algebra 3 credits. 4. Trigonometry and Surveying 3 credits. 5. Advanced Physics 3 credits. 6. School Administration 3 credits. 7. Advanced Psychology 3 credits. 8. German 3 credits. 9. Latin 3 credits. in. Advanced English 3 credits. 11. Economic Biology 3 credits. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL 12. Economic Geography 3 credits. 13. Introduction to Philosophy, Ethics, and Aesthetics 3 credits. The student should consult with his Faculty Adviser, when entering upon the Five-year Course, regarding his electives. They should be chosen from courses that support each other. The total number of credits required for gradua- tion from the five year course is 72, 18 or one -fourth of which are elective. The student must, however, elect two courses out of courses 6, 7, 13. By this arrangement the student may specialize to a comparative degree by electing his 18 terms work in English, or Science (beyond the required Science), or Mathematics or Languages as his interest may dictate. Course V. The Two-year Advanced Course for High School Graduates. It might be tabulated as follows : FIRST YEAR Fall fc Psychology •""" School Management ^ General Methods (6 weeks) •-Penmanship Methods (6 weeks) r Review Grammar Elective Winter Psychology History of Education ^Reading Methods (6 weeks) "(■""Singing Methods (6 weeks) f Review Arithmetic Elective Spring """Psychology Philosophy of Education Review History Review Geography Elective SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring School Administration Advanced Psychology Practice Elective School Administration ""School 'Advanced Psychology ""Advanced Practice Elective Administration Psychology Practice Elective VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL The High School Graduate in arranging his work in this course should observe that he is required to take two out of the following courses, namely, 6, 7, and 13 as listed above, but he has free election for the rest. By this arrangement the High School student in two years becomes qualified as a teacher and may specialize by electing twelve terms work in a single group of studies, or in two groups that support each other, and thus becomes quali- fied to a certain extent, to do High School teaching. Course VI. The Two-year Special Course for High School Graduates. Six special courses are offered High School Graduates as follows : A. Kindergarten. B. Domestic Science. C. Manual Training. D. Physical Education. E. Music and Drawing. F. Commercial Subjects. These Courses are tabulated as follows : A. KINDERGARTEN. FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Psychology- Psychology Psychology School Management History of Education Philosophy of Kindergarten Theory Kindergarten Theory Education General Methods Kindergarten Practice Kindergarten Theory (6 weeks) Singing Kindergarten Practice Penmanhsip Methods (6 weeks) Singing SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring Kindergarten Theory Review Grammar^ Practice Drawing and Chorus Kindergarten Theory Review Arithmetic Practice Drawing and Chorus Reading Methods (6 weeks) Singing Methods (6 weeks) Kindergarten Theory Review Geography Practice Drawing and Chorus VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL B. DOMESTIC SCIENCE. FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Psychology Chemistry General Methods (6 weeks) Penmanship Methods (6 weeks) Domestic Science Physiology Psychology Chemistry Reading Methods (6 weeks) Singing Methods (6 weeks) Domestic Science Textiles and Home Nursing Psychology Physics Review History Domestic Science Art Needle Work SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring Domestic Science Philosophy of Educ. Review Grammar Practice Teaching Domestic Science History of Education Review Arithmetic Practice Teaching Domestic Science School Management Review Geography Practice Teaching A double period is devoted to Domestic Science and gives one credit. Two days are devoted to Cooking, two days to Sewing, and one day to Food Study each week. The second-year work in Domestic Science consists of Advanced Cooking two days and Advanced Dressmaking two days, and Dietetics for one day for eighteen weeks, and Household Management for the remainedr of the year. The Practice teaching will be in Cooking and Sewing throughout the second year. C. MANUAL TRAINING. FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Psychology Psychology Psychology Review Grammar Review Arithmetic Review Geography Woodwork Woodwork Woodwork Mechanical Drawing Mechanical Drawing Mechanical Drawing (1 period per week) (1 period per week) (1 period per week) General Methods Reading Methods Freehand Drawing (6 weeks) (6 weeks) Penmanship Methods Singing Methods (6 weeks) ( 6 weeks) VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring School Management Copperwork Cabinetwork Mechanical Drawing (2 periods) Practice History of Education Organization of Manual Training Cabinet work Mechanical Drawing (2 periods) Practice Philosophy of Education Industrial History Turning Mechanical Drawing (2 periods) Practice Students electing Manual Training for the six electives in the Four-year course may substitute Manual Training for Singing and Penmanship in the first year, shop-work for Chorus and Drawing in the second year, and one period of teaching Manual Training for one of the two terms of regular methods for the third year. Students who take the five-year course may elect in addition to the six regular electives three units. The student may, therefore, complete the regular teacher's course and the special Manual Training course, receiving both the Elementary diploma and the Special diploma, in five years. E. MUSIC AND DRAWING. We have several courses to offer in what might be called the Public School Arts. 1. A two-year course in Music for High School graduates. 2. A two-year course in Music and Drawing combined for High School Graduates. 3. A one-year course in Music and Drawing open to graduates of this and other Normal Schools. 4. A two-year course in Drawing. 1. THE TWO-YEAR COURSE IN MUSIC FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Methods in Singing Harmony Voice, piano or violin General Methods Psychology Glee Club Methods in Singing Harmony Voice, piano or violin Methods Psychology Glee Club Methods in Singing Harmony Voice, piano or violin Review Psychology Glee Club " VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring Philosophy of Educ. Reviews Practice Musical History Voice, piano or violin Glee club History of Education Reviews Practice Musical History Voice, piano or violin Glee club School Management Reviews Practice Musical History Voice, piano or violin Glee club 2. THE COMBINED COURSE IN MUSIC AND ART FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Psychology General Methods Methods in Singing 1st Drawing Advanced Drawing Glee club Psychology Methods Methods in Singing 1st Drawing Advanced Drawing Glee club Psychology Reviews Methods in Singing 1st Drawing Advanced Drawing Glee club SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring Reviews Musical History Practice Methods in Drawing Philosophy of 1 j Education Glee club Reviews Musical History Practice Methods in Drawing Philosophv of Education Glee club Reviews Musical History Practice Methods in Drawing Philosophy of Education Glee club 3. A COURSE IN M USIC FOR NORMAL SCHOOL GRADUA TES Fall Winter Spring Methods in Singing Musical History and Harmony Practice Advanced Drawing Drawing, Methods and Practice Glee club Methods in Singing Musical History and Harmony Practice Advanced Drawing Drawing, Methods and Practice Glee club Methods in Singing Musical History and Harmony Practice Advanced Drawing Drawing, Methods and Practice Glee club The Philomelians, an advanced glee club of women's voices, meets weekly for the practice of cantatas, operettas, glees, etc. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL A TWO-YEAR COURSE IN PUBLIC SCHOOL ART FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Psychology General Methods 1st Drawing Manual Training Design Psychology Methods 1st Drawing Manual Training Design Psychology Review 1st Drawing Manual Training Design SECOND YEAR Fall Winter Spring Philosophy of Education Methods in Art Applied design in leather and basketry Advanced Drawing History of Education Methods in Art Pottery Advanced Drawing School Management History of Art Copper Advanced Drawing COMMERCIAL COURSE. FIRST YEAR Fall Psychology Methods I. Bookkeeping I. Typewriting I. Commercial Corre- spondence alternat- ing with I. Law Winter Psychology Methods II. Bookkeeping II. Typewriting II. Commercial Cor- respondence alter- nating with II. Law Spring Psychology Review III. Bookkeeping III. Typewriting III. Commercial Cor- spondence alternat- natingwith III. Law I. Shorthand and Penmanship SECOND YEAR Fall Philosophy of Educ. Practice Review Advanced Bookkeep' II. Shorthand and Penmanship Transcribing Winter History of Education Practice Review Advanced Bookkeep'g III. Shorthand and Penmanship Transcribing Spring School Management Practice Review Office Practice Shorthand Methods and Penmanship VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL G. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. The First, Second and Third Years are the same as in the Four Year Elementary Coures. Graduates of High Schools of the First Class are admitted without examination. FIRST YEAR Fall Winter Spring Physics Gymnastic Practice School Management Technique of Football, Tennis, and Fencing Anatomy- Elocution Physics Gymnastic Practice History of Education Tech. of Basket Ball, Gymnastics and Fencing Anatomy Elocution Physics Gymnastic Practice Phil, of Education Tech. of Baseball, Track. Athletics, Boxing, & Wrestli'g Playground Meth. and Games, and Physi- ology of Exercise SECOND YEAR Fall Botany Practical Gymnastics Gymnastic Dancing, & Theory of Teaching Gymnastics Practice Teaching Hygiene & Sanitation Zoology * Winter Chemistry Practical Gymnastics Gym. Danc'g and Hist, of Phys. Edu. Practice Teaching Phys. Edu. in Pub. Grade & High Sch'ls Zoology * Spring Chemistry Practical Gymnastics Gym. Dancing and Emergencies Practice Teaching Elective Physiology * * This subject comes regularly in the Third Year of the Elementary course* Those who did not take it in the regular course must make provision for it as indicated. Admission Requirements. For Courses 1, 2 or 4, graduation from the Eighth Grade will be required for entrance. Credentials should be shown on entering. Applicants without such graduation will be given an examination in Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, United States History, Penmanship and Spelling. The Spelling and Penmanship will be judged from papers written on other subjects. Holders of teachers certificates of any grade will be admitted to these three courses without exam- ination. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL For Courses 3 and 5 graduation from a first class High School will be required. Non-graduates presenting 45 credits in the form of State Board certificates will be accepted. Graduates from second and third class High Schools will be admitted to advance standings upon their High School Board certificates. Under the rule of the State Normal School Management, standings from second and third class High Schools can not be accepted except as supported by State High School Board certificates, but examination will be granted in subjects claimed by the applicant to have been done in High School but not covered by the State High School Board credentials. For the two-year special courses, graduation from a first class High School or the equivalent (45 credits of standard high school work) w r ill be required. Graduates of Normal Schools who have had the work represented by Course 3, the One-year Elementary Course for High School graduates may be admitted to any of the special courses of the Ad- vanced Five-year course, with the expectation of graduation in one year. All candidates for admission to the Normal School must be fifteen year of age, in good health, of sound mind and good moral character. Promotion. The student's record is made from his daily work and occasional tests. A good daily record is essential. Those who make a class standing of 90 % for the term are frequently exempt from the final examination, but not more than twelve per cent of a class membership may be exempt. Seventy-five per cent is the passing grade in all subjects, except Spelling. Those who fail in any term's work will be required to take it again on such conditions as the instructor may impose. This is a Normal School for the preparation of teachers, and promotion and graduation are made with reference to the teacher's ability as well as to scholarship. Scholarship must be thorough and comprehensive. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Completion of Studies. When a student has completed any subject which is necessary for him to know, in order to be a teacher, he may receive a certificate to that effect. Such certificates are ac- cepted by the examining authorities towards a teacher's certificate. Standings more than two years old will not be furnished for such purpose, unless the student has recently been in attendance, in which case the standings may be three years old. Graduation. Students who complete any of the several curricula and who give evidence of scholarship, skill in teaching, character and ability w411 be graduated and awarded a diploma of the Normal School, appropriate to his curriculum. Those who complete Course 2 must present 60 term credits. For Course 3, 15 credits are required. Candidates for graduation from Course 4 must present 72 credits, and from Course 5, 27 credits, 15 of which are the units required in the one-year Elementary Course, and 12 must relate to the specialty chosen. The diploma will not be issued to anyone who has not taken a course of at least one year as a resident student. This rule seems to be necessary to maintain standing as an educational institution, and not as an examining body. Moreover, all the work of the student's curriculum must be performed before graduation. No student will be permitted to plead any rule of this circular, or statement made by any member of the faculty as an excuse for not completing the entire work of the course to the satisfaction of the faculty. Teacher's Certificate. The laws of North Dakota are very liberal to graduates of her Normal Schools. To those who complete the Rural Course of ten and one-half months, a second grade certificate, valid in Rural Schools is issued at once. The diploma from the Four-year Elementary (Course 2) or its equivalent, the one-year curriculum (Course 3) for High School graduates is VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL awarded a professional certificate of the second grade, for two years, and after the holder has taught successfully nine months, he shall be entitled to a second grade professional certificate, valid for five years, renewable at the discretion of the State Board of Examiners. The diploma from the Advanced or Five-year curriculum (or its equivalent, the two-year curriculum for High School graduates, Course 5) is awarded a second grade professional certificate for two years, and after the holder has had nine months successful experience in teaching, he is entitled to a second grade professional certificate valid for life. Graduates from any of the special curricula will likewise receive a diploma and will be granted a certificate authoriz- ing them to teach in any of the Common, Graded, or High Schools of the State, the specialty represented by their diploma, as well as the five-year certificate granted to gradu- ates of the Four-year Elementary course. Advance Standing. Examination for advanced standing will be permitted in the case of work claimed to haye been done elsewhere but for which satisfactory credentials are not submitted. Examination for standing in common school subjects will be permitted only to teachers with at least nine months' experience. Even they must take in class the first term's work in any such subject, but they may, in certain cases, take examination for a standing in the remainder of the sub- ject but only by recommendation of the teacher. Advanced standing not to exceed six credits will be allowed for secondary schools and college work not included in the Normal School courses of study, and not sectarian or denominational. Subjects accepted would, of course, absorb the student's six electives allowed, in the four year course. Deficiency in English. Students who are conspicuously deficient in either writ- ten or oral English will not be permitted to graduate, although they may have obtained a passing standing in all the regu- VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL larly required and elective work. This rule will not be in- forced as rigidly in the case of students of Course 1 as in other courses. The school may make such assessments of extra work in individual cases as it considers advisable. Other Regulations. vStudents who take the regular instruction and practice in band, orchestra, glee club once each week, or who take special lessons in music not oftener than twice each week may claim one-fifth credit per term on satisfactory standings in each subject. Students must be guided by the faculty adviser in the arrangement of studies, in order to avoid scattered results. Students who enter upon a three term subject are re- quired to take three terms unless permission is secured from the faculty to take fewer. The passing mark in all subjects is 75 per cent, except spelling in which a standing of 95 per cent is required for two terms or 90 per cent for three terms. No credit is given for spelling. All students must take it until the required record is made. Students to complete the Elementary Course in four years are expected to carry five subjects each term as shown in the tabulated course of study. To carry more, the permission of the faculty must be secured, and such permission is usually difficult to secure. The student who makes a low average standing will be required to take fewer than five studies, thereby lengthening the time of the course. Students commencing the regular four year course may be able in five years to complete it and one of the special courses and may receive the regular Normal School diploma, and in addition thereto the special diploma authorizing them to teach the subjects included in their special course. Likewise, students entering on the four year course may continue to the end of the five year course and receive the diploma of the five year course, which leads to the state life certificate. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL No student shall receive the special certificate mentioned except upon the completion of five years of work in the Nor- mal School or two years in the Normal School in advance of the first class High School curriculum. No work done in High School can be accepted by the Normal School to shorten the time of any course. High School students who have any of the required work will not be required to repeat their course in the Normal School but must take another subject as a substitute. As far as possible, studies should be taken up in the order indicated in the tabu- lated course of study. Absence from recitations reduces a student's class stand- ing one per cent for each absence having a satisfactory excuse ; two per cent for each absence with unsatisfactory excuse. Absence of three days or more on account of sickness or other important engagement may be excused upon petition to the faculty. In all cases involving less than three day's absence, instructors will enforce the rule announced in this paragraph. Any student found deficient in spelling, spoken or written English will be remanded to the class that will most effectively remove their deficiency. Credits. A credit is one subject reciting each day for a term of three months. A unit is one study carried through the year, reciting daily five times per week. A unit is frequently called a course. The four year course requires that the student present sixty credits for graduation, fifty-four of which are required, six of which may be elected from the list shown on page The one year elementary course for High School gradu- ates requires 15 credits. The special and two year advanced course for High School graduates requires 27 credits. For the completion of the Advanced Course, the student must present 72 credits. Any graduate of the four year course may afterward return to the school and complete the twelve credits and receive the advanced diploma. The school will offer such subjects of the Advanced, Elective and Special two year courses, as the demands of the students and the resources of the school warrant. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Departments. Agriculture. Mr. James Mr. Thoreson Agriculture I. One term. Elementary. An elective course repeated each summer term. The plant; requirements for its growth, plant propagation; the nature, formation, cul- tivation, and fertility of soils; fruits, trees, and ornamental shrubbery adapted to North Dakota. Simple laboratory work, suitable for the common schools and requiring little apparatus. Text: Warren's Elements of Agriculture. Agriculture II. Two terms. Fall and spring. Re- quired of those pursuing the Rural Teachers' Course. The aim is to interest the student in rural life, cause him to be- lieve in its wholesomeness and possibilities, and give him a knowledge of the elements of agriculture. The course covers the same subjects that are covered by the course designated by "Agriculture III," but less time is spent upon laboratory work, and the subjects are treated in a briefer manner. Text : Warren's "Elements of Agriculture." Agriculture III. One year. Required of all regular first year students in the four year elementary course. The fall term is devoted to a study of the plant, its growth, propa- gation, germination of seeds, identification, and scoring; a few type farm crops ; identification and study of weeds with methods of eradication; common fruits of the region, consid- ering planting, pruning, and general care; ornamental trees, shrubs and vines, houseplants, etc., suitable for home and school grounds. In the winter term the principles of feeding farm animals, history of a few main breeds, their chief char- acteristics and uses; dairying, with attention to the care of milk on the farm, the Babcock test, etc. In the spring term, soils, their nature, formation, texture, composition, and classification; effect of cultivation, drainage, and rotation of crops ; soil fertility, with special attention to the essential plant VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL foods, their abundance, and source. Three hours a week of recitation, and four hours a week of laboratory exercises and field work, including school garden and experiment plots. Texts: Warren's Elements of Agriculture, Agricultural Bul- letins, and Year Books of the Department of Agriculture. Agriculture IV. Two years. Seven periods a week. Designed for those who elect agriculture as the special sub- ject in the five year course. Much the same subjects are considered as in the one-year course, but in a more detailed and advanced way. The laboratory work is more extensive and more time is devoted to it. The work is divided as follows : First Year. Fall term: The Plant and Farm Crops. Study of the plant, requirements of plant growth, propaga- tion, identification, germination, and scoring of seeds, their slection, care, etc. ; identification study of most injurious weeds and their seeds, with methods of combating them; a few special farm crops, as corn; description of main varieties, scoring and grading, cultivation, uses, place in rotation, etc. Winter term: The physical nature of soils, their formation, function, origin, and wasting texture, composition, and kinds; capillarity, osmosis, and diffusion in their relation to the soil and plants; soil, water, air, temperature; drainage; physical effects of tillage and fertilizers. Text: King's Physics of Agriculture. Spring term: Fruits, the location, planting, tillage, protection, and general care of trees and small fruits; diseases and injurious insects. Landscape gardening; simple rules of planting with several trees and shrubs adapted to this state. Propagation; seedage, cuttage, layerage, and grafting. Window boxes and school gardens; laboratory and garden work. Text: Green's Popular Fruit Growing. Second Year. Fall term: A study of farm animals. Horses, draft and road; cattle, beef and dairy; hogs, fat or lard and bacon. Sheep, mutton and wool. Poultry, meat, general purpose, egg. History of main breeds; economy of different types; their management and care. Winter term: Animal feeding. Food principles, digestive system of farm animals; function of nutrients; food stuffs; nutritive ratio; VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL balanced rations; feeding of growing and work animals. Dairying; composition and care of milk; its bacteria; Babcock test; individual differences of dairy cows; economy of dairy- ing in farm practice. Spring term: Chemical composition of the soil. The plant foods necessary to plant growth; their uses, foods likely to become deficient; crop requirements of these elements; losses of fertility; their causes; commercial fertilizers ; pot culture experiments and field work. Arts. Miss Deem Miss Bassett A course of three years in drawing and manual art is of- fered. The first year's work is required of all second year stu- dents in the Normal department, and the three terms must be taken consecutively. The second and third years may be elected by those who specialize as teachers of drawing and manual arts in the graded schools. These courses are also open to high school graduates who have had a preliminary course of drawing in the grades and in an accredited high school. The completion of three years' work entitles the student to the special certificate for drawing. First Drawing. Required in the second year of Normal Course. One and one-half credits. First term. One-half credit. Theory of color. Exer- cises to develop the color sense, and a study of the funda- mental laws with regard to the handling of color. The appli- cation of the laws of color in pictorial representation of flowers and still-life. Mediums used: water colors and colored chalks. Second term. One-half credit. Free hand and mechan- ical perspective. Drawing from cast and life. Mediums used : pencil, charcoal, colored chalks. Third term. One-half credit. Landscape and flower painting. Design. The principles of aesthetics as applied to modern and historic art. Text-book: Art Education, Prang. Advanced Drawing. One year. Two periods a day. Three credits. First term. Still life drawing. Cast drawing. Mediums used: Water color, charcoal, colored chalks. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Second term. Applied design. Materials used: leather, brass and copper, clay. Third term. Constructive design. Architectural draw- ing. Landscape. School Room Methods in Art. Prerequisites, First and Advanced Drawing. A study of the curriculum of school art as done in the public schools. Two periods a day. Three credits. First term. One credit. Primary methods. A course in drawing and handwork for the first four grades. Teaching in the Model School. Second term. One credit. Intermediate and grammar school methods. A course in drawing and hand work, con- sisting of clay modeling, book binding, lettering, basketry, pottery, etc. Teaching in the model school. Third term. History of Art. The study of the evolu- tion of art from primitive times to the present, with special emphasis on the great art epochs, and their relation to and influence on present day accomplishment. The aim is not only to make this course instructive, but to attain correct standards of taste. Commercial Studies. Mr. Curtiss Mrs. Greenwood Miss Cook Penmanship. Three terms, daily. Free-hand writing, with abundant practice and drill, and special attention to the correct pedagogy of the subject. Students are not only taught how to w T rite well, but how to teach writing well. Text: The Curtiss Ideal. Bookkeeping. A three-term study. Special column ruling, duplicating devices, department ledgers, the keeping of branch store accounts, the opening and closing of partner- ship books, and office practice. The instruction in bookkeep- ing is entirely individual. Text: Curtiss' American Stand- ard Bookkeeping. Stenography. A three-term subject. Open to all second year students. The fundamental principles of the subject, VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL followed by extensive practice and accompanied by exhaus- tive test exercises designed to increase the student's steno- graphic vocabulary and strengthen the memory. Careful attention given to business forms, legal and legislative docu- ments, filing, copying, indexing, manifolding, as well as the general knowledge and habits required of the competent amanuensis. Texts: Barnes' Brief Course, Reader I., II., and III., and Universal Dictation Course, and Tinus' Dicta- tion Studies. Typewriting. Three terms. The touch system ; perfect mastery of the keyboard; care of the machine; rapid and accurate work, with a final minimum speed of twenty-five words per minute when transcribing from shorthand notes, and thirty-five when copying. Text: R. P. Felch's Touch Typewriting Instructor. Commercial Law. Three terms, alternating daily with Commercial Correspondence. Required of all bookkeeping students. A thoro study of the fundamental laws of busi- ness, and principles governing trade. Practical application is made of every theory taught. Systematic instruction and drills in contracts, negotiable instruments, personal property, agency, partnership, corporations, insurance, and real estate transfers are conducted. Especial attention is paid to the preparation of all common legal documents. The formation of good business habits and the elevation of the ideals of citizenship are given careful thought in this course. Text: Lyons' Commercial Law. Commercial Correspondence. Three terms, alternat- ing daily with Commercial Law. Required of all commercial students. Substitutes for regular rhetorical work. Much attention is given in this course to correct English in letters and essays. Systematic drill is carried on thruout the year in all technicalities relating to business documents. In addi- tion to extensive practice in business letter writing, the fol- lowing short courses are incorporated: Contracts, invoicing, billing, telegraphing, cabling, advertising, social correspond- ence, and postal information. Text: Altmaier's Commercial Correspondence. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Short Course Commercial Correspondence. One term, daily. Open to commercial students who can remain for the winter term only. Practically the same work as out- lined above, in slightly abbreviated form. Text: Alt- maier's Commercial Correspondence. Domestic Science. Miss Farnsworth Miss Spensley Open to high school graduates or those taking the five year course. The first year a double period daily is devoted to Domes- tic Science and gives one credit; two days are devoted to Cooking, two to Sewing, and one to Food Study. In the Food Study, the character, value, use and prepa- ration of food materials are considered. Textiles requires six weeks and Home Nursing six weeks. The second year's work in Domestic Science consists of Advanced Cooking two days, Dressmaking two days and Dietetics one day for eighteen weeks, then Household Man- agement the remainder of the year. Practice Teaching in Cooking, and Sewing will be given throughout the second year. The history andjliterature of Domestic Science together with its organization in the public schools will be given in the spring term. The aim is to make the work extremely practical and wholly adapted to the public schools. Emphasises put upon thoroughness of work in the department rather than elabo- rateness of equipment. It is the opinion,of the school that domestic science need not be an expensive^feature of our public schools. Educational Theory. Mr. Buffum Mr. Hollis Miss Portman Miss Hill School Management and School Hygiene. One term. Repeated each term. Required of all seniors. About eight weeks are devoted to the consideration of the actual problems VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL of the teacher's daily life and work. During the last four weeks school conditions affecting the health of pupils indi- vidually and of the school as a whole are studied. Texts: Seeley's School Management, and Shaw's School Hygiene. History of Education. One term. Repeated each term. Required of seniors. A general view of the history of education, with special attention to the relation of past progress to present day conditions. Text book and library reference work. Text: Compayre's History of Pedagogy. Philosophy of Education. One term. Repeated each term. Required work for seniors. A study of Biological, Physiological, Sociological, Psychological, and Philosophical aspects of education. Text: Home's Philosophy of Educa- tion. Elements of Pedagogy. One term. First year. A brief course primarily for students expecting to teach before graduation. Topics are taken up dealing with actual school room work and conditions. Texts: White's Elements of Pedagogy. Contemporary Educational Systems. Fall and win- ter terms. Primarily for advanced students, and open to seniors. A study of the school systems of England, Germany, Ontario, and the United States. Credit is allowed for the work of either term, though the course runs through two terms. Texts: Sharpless' English Education, Bolton's The Secondary School System of Germany, Ross' The School System of Ontario, and Boone's Education in the United States. School Administration. One term. Spring term. For advanced students and seniors. This course, dealing with the practical problems of School Administration, makes with the course on Contemporary Educational Systems a year's work. Text: Perry's The Management of a City School. General Methods. The first six weeks of the fall term. This is a study of the basic principles which underlie the special methods presented subsequently in classes in special methods. Text: McMurry's Methods of the Recitation. Introduction to Philosophy, Ethics, and Aesthetics. VALLEY CITY NO R M A L SCHOOL One year. If desired, a course in these branches will be given, running through three terms. (For advanced students.) Kindergarten Practice. That pupils may apply the theories studied, a kindergarten for children from four to six is maintained. Besides the regular required three terms of Practice Work, one more term will be given in the kinder- garten, so that students may surely be proficient in practical work. Music and Drawing are required, as each is so essen- tial in the correct development of young children. The Special Kindergarten Course. A thorough course in Kindergarten Training, comprising two years and leading to a special diploma, is offered to Normal seniors or High School graduates. Besides the fifteen required senior credits, twelve in special work are required, six in Kinder- garten theory, two each in Music and Drawing, one elective, and one in Kindergarten Practice. The Kindergarten Theory comprises: Mother Play, in which Froebel's Mother Play Songs are discussed as exam- ples of how to study children. Gifts, based upon the facts that the fundamental forms underlying nature, industrial, and artistic work are geometric. These gifts help the child to understand the relation of form, to classify the objects about him, and to undertake creative construction. Occupa- tions. Elementary forms of handwork which develop the creative and constructive instincts of the child to the point where free expression is possible. The simplest basic princi- ples of construction are taught in order to develop the coor- dination of hand and eye essential to the manual training in the grades. Program, in which the essential elements of the year's program are taken up with discussions of the problems pertaining to each day's work. Original programs are re- quired. Stories, developing both the art of story-telling and a discrimination in the choice of stories adapted to the various needs of the children. The classification, adaptation, and dramatization of stories is also studied. Games, including study of the educational values of play, and practice in play- ing the games used in Kindergarten and Primary Grades. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL English Language and Literature. Mr. Andrews Miss McGregor Miss Amidon Mrs. Macdonald Miss Rawlins First Grammar. One term. Required of first year students. A study of sentences and their structure. Text: Buehler's English Grammar, Part I. Second Grammar. One term. Required of students after completing First Grammar. A study of the parts of speech. Text: Buehler's English Grammar, Part II. Review Grammar. One term. Required of seniors. A review of the elements of grammar. Text: Webster's English Grammar. Language and Grammar for Rural School Teachers. Two terms. Required of students taking the course of ten and one-half months. Texts: Buehler's English Grammar and Literature for the Study of Language, arranged by R. M. Black. Rhetoric. One year. Required of second year stu- dents. The laws of correct expression in language, and their application in written and oral composition. Text: Espen- shade's Rhetoric and Composition. Literature. One year. Two terms required of juniors. A brief historical survey, with an investigation of literary principles and a consideration of various classics with special reference to the teaching of reading and literature in the grades. Text: Moody and Lovett's History of English Lit- erature. Advanced Literature. One year. A selected period in English or American literature studied in detail, with ex- tensive individual investigation and collateral reading. Spelling and Word Study. One year ; two recitations a week. Required of all first year students and of such other students as shall be found markedly deficient in this line of work. Pronunciation, word-building, and definition. An average of 90 per cent or more for three terms' work or an VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL average of 95 per cent for two terms, will be required for com- pletion of the subject. Text: Sandwick and Bacon's The High School Word Book. Reading. One term; first year. The aim is to make in- telligent readers by teaching the student to analyze thought, to interpret literature, and to render the meaning naturally. Drill in pronunciation, enunciation, and articulation; the formation of clear mental pictures of the selections read; the development of the voice in the expression of emotions. Text: Clark's How to Teach Reading. Expression. This department is for the personal need of the student, for a broader development of self and to elimi- nate by careful training inherited and habitual defects and mannerisms of voice and body. This course offers three terms: First, theory of correc- tive speech for school room practice and story telling; second articulation, enunciation, pronunciation, phrasing and ges- ture, the study and arrangement of special day programs as the outgrowth of class work; third, dramatization of chil- dren's stories for practical uses. Texts : Murdoch's Analytic Elocution. Rhetoricals. The student should familiarize himself with the requirements for Rhetoricals as detailed here. These exercises in composition and expression, under the direction of the Department of English, are required of all First Year and Junior students, three terms each, and of all Seniors, in connection with Current Events, during the first and second terms. First year students will perform three exacting exercises, or their equivalent, during each term, in regular Rhetorical classes. They will not be allowed to do work for Rhetorical credit in literary societies. Second year students enrolled in Rhetoric will be excused from other Rhetorical work. Juniors will perform three exacting exercises, or their equivalent, during each term. The principal one of these exercises must be delivered before a regular Junior Rhetorical class ; the other two exercises may be delivered before a liter- ary society, or in a class room, w4th the sanction of the Rhe- VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL torical teacher in charge. The principal exercise must con- sist of a piece of original composition, fully memorized, and delivered in class. The other two exercises may be of the nature of essays, debate, declamation, or oratory. Where these are to be delivered before literary societies, each paper, selection, or outline must be submitted for revision, to the instructor in charge, on the Tuesday before the Saturday on which it is to be delivered. If a student fails to fulfill the Rhetorical requirements promptly and satisfactorily, additional work of this nature will be exacted. First year, second year, and Junior students participating in the Brownson and Francis prize competitions, in final inter- society or inter-scholastic debate, in theatricals, or in other similar exercises, or in journalism and student publications, will be excused from an equivalent amount of Rhetorical work at the discretion of the instructors in charge. Commercial students may substitute one year's work in letter-writing for First Year Rhetoricals. Rural Course students will do Rhetorical work under the supervision of the head of that department and largely in connection with their literary society, "The Prairie Breeze." Three papers a term, carefully written and criticized, shall be asked of each student, besides regular appearance before the society or class at intervals, in oral work. The exercises are all to be suggestive with reference to the students' future work as teachers in rural schools. Senior Current History. One hour each week, fall and winter terms, with sections in the spring term for stu- dents entering school in January. Required of all Seniors without exception. The hour will be devoted largely to the discussion of current history in which there will be an exam- ination at the end of each term. Each student will prepare and give two talks or discussions a term along the line of cur- rent his tor y. Literary Societies. The students of the school sup port three voluntary literary societies and other minor socie- ties for special forms of voluntary literary effort. The senior VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL society, State Normal Atheneum, maintained for exercise in essay, debate, and parliamentary practice is open to young men and young women. The Clionian society limits its membership to young women and meets once a week for literary work. The young men of the school maintain the E. B. C. society for the encouragement of debate and other forms of literary work. Honorable E. R. Brownson, a member of the Board of Management offers an annual prize of $25.00 to the society which does the highest grade of work throughout the year. The Francis Oratorical Prize, offered by Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Francis, of Ayr, as a memorial to their little daughters, consists of the sum of $25.00 yearly for a period of ten years, beginning with 1911, to be distributed in amounts of twelve, eight and five dollars respectively, among the three contest- ants ranking highest. The prizes are for excellence in ora- tory and any student in the Normal may compete. The orations for next year's contest are to be handed in by the last Tuesday in January, so that the work of preparation should begin in the summer or early fall. History and Social Science. Mr. Wemett Miss Hill Rural American History. Two terms. Begun in both fall and winter terms. Required of all students taking the rural course. Text: Mace's School History. American History. Two terms. Required of all second year students in the winter and spring terms. A general survey of American history; social and economic as well as political development. Text: James and Sanford's Ameri- can History. General History. One year. Required of all Juniors A general survey of the history of the ancient nations and of western Europe. Texts: West's Ancient World; Robinson's Introduction to the History of Western Europe. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Review History. One term. Rep eated each term Required of all seniors. A topical review of the important phases of American history in connection with mtehods in teaching history. Text: McMurry's Special Method in His- tory. Civics. One term. Required of all students in the fall term of the third year. FA study of the organization and opera- tion of both federal and state governments. Text: Boyle's Government of North Dakota. Economics. Fall term. Open to juniors. A short course in the fundamental principles of Political Economy. Text: Ely and Wicker's Elementary Economics. Sociology. Winter term. Open to juniors. A study of the organization of society and of the operation of social forces; present-day problems and methods. Reading and reports. Text: Blackmar's Elements of Sociology. Modern History. One year. Open only to seniors and graduate students. An option of two fields of study is of- fered to students in this course, as follows: (a) Recent European History, including the Protestant Revolution, the French Revolution, the growth of modern governments and a short treatment of the present interna- tional relations. Texts: Seebohm's Era of the Protestant Revolution; Judson's Europe in the Nineteenth Century. (b) Political Science. A comparative study of the gov- ernments of France, Germany, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, England and the United States. Text: Wilson's The State. Advanced American History. One year. Open only to seniors and graduate students. An intensive study of any one of the following periods as desired by the students : (a) The Period of the Constitution. 1783-1817. Text: Walker's The Making of the Nation. (b) The Period of National Development. 1817-1860. Text: Burgess' The Middle Period. (c) The Period of the Civil War. 1860-1872. Texts: Burgess' The Civil War and the Constitution; Burgess' Recon- struction and the Constitution. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL « History Seminar. One year. One hour each week. A course to be taken by seniors writing a thesis in the history department. Examination and discussion of bibliography; notes and written work. Languages. Miss Rawlins Miss Fridd First German. One year. Open to students in the second year, senior, and junior classes. Pronunciation; easy reading and conversation; rudiments of grammar; constant reference to German geography, history and literature ; prose composition. Ability to speak and read ordinary German prose and to understand something of German life, and char- acter, is the aim. Texts: Bacon's German Grammar for Beginners, Newson's First German Book, and selected Ger- man classics. Second German. One year. Open to students in the junior and senior classes. Reading; grammar; prose compo- sition; easy conversation; much reference work on German history and literature. Increased facility in understanding and expressing thought in the German language and an in- troduction to Germany's choicest literature, is the aim. Texts: Bacon's German Grammar for Beginners, Hamann's Echo of Spoken German, selected classics, and scientific and journalistic German of today. Third German. A course in Third Year German, four hours a week throughout the year, will be given, if there be a sufficient demand for it. First Latin. One year. Open to students in the second year and junior classes. The aim is to give the student a vocabulary, and a thorough knowledge of forms and the fun- damental principles of syntax. Text: Lowe and Butler's (Revised by Walker) Bellum Helveticum. Caesar. One year. Open to students in the junior and senior classes. Ease in interpreting the thought of the au- VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL thor and in expressing it is the chief aim. Much attention will be given to grammatical principles. Prose composition once a week. Texts : Gunnison and Harley's Caesar's Gallic War. Bennett's Latin Grammar. Cicero. One year. Open to students taking the five year course and to any others who desire and can make ar- rangements for three years' work in Latin. Library Instruction. Mabel G. West Lillian M. Partridge Use op the Library. Required of all entering students during the fall term, once a month. The classification and arrangement of books; the use of the card catalogue, of peri- odical indexes, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and handbooks. Library Economy. Required of all seniors, one term, once a week. The relation between library and school, the school library room, book binding, book selection and buying, preparation for the shelves, accessioning, classification and book numbers, cataloging, loan systems, children's books and reading, reference books, investigating a subject in a library. Library Practice. Offered each term to a limited number of seniors. Two periods of practice a day. The work covers all phases of the subject, and students who ex- pect to become principals, or to have libraries to care for, are urged to take the work. Manual Training. Mr. Selden The work in Manual Training is given for its educa- tional value. It will be found especially useful to those pre- paring to teach in either the rural or village schools or high schools. Rooms and recitation periods are. planned to give the largest possible opportunities to all classes of pupils. Those not able to complete a shop course may elect one or more terms of such courses as they are prepared to enter Those contemplating doing any work in the manual training VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL laboratories should consult with the Director of Manual Training before attempting to arrange their other classes. A laboratory fee of one dollar per term is charged for each unit of shop work. This fee is not in payment for materials, but rather for use of tools and laboratory equipment. No charge is made for materials used in the elementary studies. A reasonable charge is made for all materials used in advance projects. The projects of the shop are the property of the school and may be retained until the end of the school year or longer. Short Course. Six terms; forty-five minutes each day, one-half credit each term. This course is for the accommoda- tion of such pupils as are unable to spend eighty minutes each day in the shop. The work is similar to that given in the regular elementary course. The sa.me texts are used, but only the more simple problems are attempted. Elementary Manual Training. Six terms, eighty minutes each day, one credit each term. Pupils having com- pleted a thorough course of manual training in the grades, will be given one term advanced credit on completing this course. First term: A study of the plain surface and simple joinery. Tools, materials and projects are considered with reference to their uses in the grades and high school, their educational value and methods of instruction. Second term: Various methods of joinery are discussed and demonstrated in simple projects. Text: Woodwork for the Grades. Third term: The chisel and its uses in joinery. The principles of laying out straight and angular work. Fourth and Fifth terms: Cabinet making. Demonstration of all the more important principles of construction and finishing given in the text used, Elementary Cabinet work. Sixth term: See Industrial History and Organization of Manual Training. Elementary Mechanical Drawing. Three terms, forty- five minutes each day, one-half credit each term. Required of all pupils preparing to teach manual training in the high school grades; based on the problems of the wood shop. Pupils should provide themselves with a set of instruments of approved grade. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Advanced Mechanical Drawing. Two years, eighty minutes each day, one credit each term. Prerequisite, Ele- mentary Mechanical Drawing or its equivalent. This course covers the work necessary in preparing to teach mechanical drawing in high schools. Industrial History. One term. Required of all pupils preparing to teach Manual Training. The history of various typical industries is studied by use of reference works. The aim is to give a broad view of industrial life and a knowledge of the magnitude and importance of our modern industries. This course is of value to all teachers, principals and superintendents, as it shows how the development of modern industry has led to the need for the study of mechanical sci- ence. It also supplies much material for use in giving object lessons and talks to pupils in the grades. Organization of Manual Training. One term. Re- quired of all pupils specializing in Manual Training. This course supplies the essential data for installing equipment and organizing Manual Training classes. This includes theory, class methods, the general management of the school shops, and the purchasing of supplies. Special Manual Training Methods. This course covers the special methods of the Manual Training work and follows the course in organization of Manual Training. Mathematics. Mr. Meyer Mr. Davies Mrs. White Mr. Lever Rural Arithmetic Two terms. Required of all stu- dents taking the rural course. Prerequisite: arithmetic of the grammar grades. A review of the subject with particular attention to the arithmetic of the farm. Principles of teach- ing are considered. Speed and accuracy are developed by special drills. Text: Stevens and Butler's A Practical Arithmetic. Arithmetic. Two terms. Required of all freshmen. Prerequisite: arithmetic of the grammar grades. A complete VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL review with a brief consideration of the pedogogy of the sub- ject. Particular attention is given to short methods and to the arithmetical use of algebraic and geometric principles. Text: Wentworth-Smith Complete Arithmetic. Algebra. One year. Required of all first year students. Prerequisite: arithmetic of the eighth grade. The solution of a system of simultaneous quadratics of two unknowns and their graphs. Text: Well's First Course in Algebra. Geometry. One year. Required of all second year students. Prerequisites arithmetic and algebra. The mathe- matical knowledge essential to physics; the power of logical steps; ability of expression in concise English. Plane and solid geometry. Text: Well's New Plane and Solid Geome- try. Review Arithmetic. One term. Required of all seniors. Prerequisites : algebra and geometry. A review of the sub- ject matter of arithmetic from the standpoint of the elemen- tary school. Each topic in the course is considered with reference to the requirements of child psychology and the de- mands of industry. Emphasis is placed on methods of drill in the fundamental operations, and on the application of number to the environment of the child. Text: Lyman's Advanced Arithmetic. Advanced Algebra. One year. Elective in the five- year course and in the two-year advanced course for high school students. Prerequisite : a good mathematical standing in the lower classes. Least common multiple by long division and application, theory of indices, surds, imaginaries, quad- ratics and their graphs, radical equations, quadratic system of two unknowns and graphs, indeterminant equations, in- equalities, progressions, functions and theory of limits, deri- vatives of simple algebraic functions, series including special formulae for development and summation, logarithms, deter- minants, and the elements of the theory of equations. Text: Taylor's College Algebra. Trigonometry. Two terms. Elective in the five year course and in the two-year advanced course for high school graduates. Prerequisites: arithmetic, algebra, geometry and VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL advanced algebra. Plane and spherical trigonometry; manip- ulation of formulae; reduction of inverse functions. Surveying. One term. Elective the same as trigo- nometry. Prerequisites: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, ad- vanced algebra, and trigonometry. Plane surveying and leveling. Music. Fanny C. Amidon Miss Fristad Singing. First course. Theory, sight reading, expres- sion, and ear training. Singing. Second course. A study of the best composi- tions, with emphasis on the comprehension of the phrase, correct interpretation, distinct articulation, and the relation of words and music. Singing. Third course. Ensemble practice of standard choruses one period each day for three terms. The above courses together with the following work in methods of singing is required of all students who expect to graduate. Methods of Singing. All work in singing is presented with reference to the child and the child voice. Many rote songs are learned and practiced in the light tone so essential for the teacher of the lower grades. The work of each grade, from the primary through the high school, is carefully studied and outlined. At least one method of presenting each new phase of the music work is learned and practiced. The stu- dent is given sufficient training to conduct the music work in his own room and to have an intelligent knowledge of the full scope of the music work. The Philomelians, an advanced glee club of women's voices, meets weekly for the practice of cantatas, operettas, glees, etc. Physical Education. Mr. Burckhalter Mrs. Burckhalter Mr. Lever Miss Rice Physical education includes gymnastics, athletics, plays and games, and hygiene, all of which are phases of physical education and means to the attainment and maintenance of health and physical efficiency. Each student is required to take the physical examina- VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL tion and measurements at the opening of the school year upon or entrance to the school and thereafter whenever the instructors in charge deem it necessary. This is for the purpose of assist- ing the instructors in the individual prescription of exercise and to prevent accidents. Physical education is classified under two heads, general and special. General physical education is planned to meet the legal requirements governing the physical education of students. Special physical education consists of courses ar- ranged for the purpose of training teachers to conduct physical education in the public schools. The courses are as follows: General. General physical education consists of gymnastics and games, athletics and a prescribed amount of hygiene. One period three days a week in some phase of this work is re- quired of all students for a period of three years. The kind of practical work which a student may do is optional in so far as the physical condition and skill of the student will allow. Under certain conditions students may be excused by doctor's certificate. During the fall and springthe work for both men and women is of an athletic nature and is conducted in the open air while the weather is fair. During the cold winter months it con- sists of gymnastics and is conducted in the gymnasium. Gymnastics. Gymnastics for women consists of graded calisthenics, elementary apparatus exercises, games and gymnastic dancing. Gymnastics for men consists of graded calisthenics, heavy apparatus exercises and games. Athletics. Athletics at the Normal School is a phase of physical education. The object is to conduct athletics in the spirit of sport for sport's sake; to teach students to play in the true sportsman spirit of fairness and honor; to regard the pleasure of the contest and the honor of the Normal School as the primary incentive; to play courageously to the finish; to win whenever possible but never employing unfair or dishonorable methods. The Normal School supports representative teams in all lines of sport in season which compete with representative VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL teams from other educational institutions. Class teams for both men and women compete annually for school champion- ship honors. Winter out-door sports, especially skating, are encouraged. Special Physical Education 2. Gymnastic Dancing, Theory of Teaching Calisthenics, Emergencies and History of Physical Education. Three credits. Gymnastic dancing consists of fundamental dancing steps, folk dancing and aesthetic danc- ing. Two days a week throughout the year. Theory of teaching calisthenics consists of instruction and discussion of the technique of teaching calisthenic movements; the prevention and correction of faulty postures; and the maintenance of interest and discipline, etc. Three days a week during the fall term. History of physical education consists of lectures, quizzes and papers by the members of the class. The study will cover the physical training of the Ancients, physical training of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the beginning and development of physical education in Europe and the devel- opment and present status in the United States. Three days a week during the winter term. Emergencies consists of the study of methods of first aid to the injured — diagnosis and treatment of bruises, abrai- sions, sprains, fractures, poisons, contagions and infections, in the absence of a doctor. Three times a week during the spring term. Physical Education 3. Practical Gymnastics. Three credits. The course continues daily throughout two years. It consists of practice work on the gymnasium floor. The aim is to gain precision and accuracy of execution in teachers of gymnastics. Physical Education 4. Technique of gymnastics, ath- letics, competitive games and defensive sports. Recitations and practice, daily for one year, one and one-half credits. This course is intended to give instruction in coaching and teaching the various lines of physical activities. A de- VALLEY CITY NOR M A L S C II O O L tailed study will be made of each line and the best methods to use in teaching grade school and high school students. Field tactics and the playing of individual positions is a feat- ure. Training will be discussed. Defensive sports consists of two terms of practice twice a week in fencing, boxing or wrestling. Physical Education 5. Playgrounds, Plays and Games. Half term, one-half credit. This is a course in playground con- struction, equipment, administration, study of play and its function, and the actual playing of games in the gymnasium or play room and upon the playground. Physical Education 6. Anatomy. Two terms, two credits. This is a text book and lecture course in which the gross human anatomy is studied in sufficient detail to lay a foundation for the study of physiology and related topics. This course begins in the fall term. Physical Education 7. Physiology and Physiology of Exercise. One term, one credit. This course consists of a study of the functions of the organs of the human body and the influence of muscular exercise upon the various parts of the organism. Physical Education 8. Hygiene and Sanitation. One term, one credit. This is a course on personal and school hy- giene and sanitation of a public and a private nature. Physical Education 9. Physical Education in Public Grade Schools and High Schools. One term, one credit. In this course a study is made of the boys and girls in their periods of development and their physical needs in relation to public school environment. Physical Education 10. Zoology. Two terms, two credits. This course is taken with the department of biology. It consists of a study of the lower forms of life and of the stages of development through the intermediate to the higher forms as exemplified in the vertebrates. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Pyschology. Mr. Randels Psychology. One year. The course of the first two terms is designed to familiarize the student with the funda- mental facts and principles of mental phenomena and to lead him to observe his own mental states. The third term is devoted to a consideration of the facts concerning the devel- opment during childhood and adolescence, with special refer- ence to their significance in teaching. Texts: James' Psy- chology (Briefer Course) and Kirkpatrick's Fundamentals of Child Study. Advanced Psychology. One year. The methods of child psychology, biographical, observational, direct question, questionnaire, experimental, statistical and clinical. Special attention will be given to the clinical method of observation and description of children, normal, backward, and excep- tional. Two terms are given to laboratory work in experi- mental psychology. Text: Titchner's Experimental Psy- chology, (Qualitative Experiments.) Science. Mr. McMullen, Physics and Chemistry Mr. Johnson, Biology Miss Perrine, Geology and Astronomy Miss Schermerhorn, Geography Physics. Three terms. Required in the fourth year. The first term is given to mechanics, the second to sound and light, and the third to heat and electricity. The course is designed to give each graduate of the school a working knowledge of the every day principles of physics, to train the hand and eye, to inculcate habits of neatness and order, and to give speed and accuracy in arithmetic processes. Two periods are devoted to the work each day. A week's work usually consists of four periods in the laboratory, three periods in recording laboratory work and in text-book study, and three periods in recitation. Each student presents each term VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL a short paper or review of some published article of current physical interest. Text: McMullen's Forty Lessons in Physics. Advanced Physics. Three terms. An elective course in advance of the above, designed especially for students preparing to teach any branch of science. Much reading in magazines is done ; along with the laboratory work apparatus design and making are studied; and the pedagogy of the subject receives special attention. Chemistry. Three terms. While this is a required course for domestic science students, the first two terms are so ar- ranged that they may be elected by anyone desiring a knowl- edge of elementary chemistry. Brownlee and others is the text. The third term, which must be preceded by physics also, is given over to the applications of physics and chemis- try which occur in the household. Most of this work is taken from catalogs and bulletins. Elementary Human Physiology and Hygiene. One term. Classes in this subject will be formed whenever the demand warrants. This course takes only one term for its completion and is designed especially for those who expect to teach before graduation. It gives no credit on the regular Normal Course. Botany. Three terms. Required of all juniors, not en- rolled in Zoology. A study of plant groups. Laboratory and field work required throughout. Zoology. Three terms. A practical acquaintance with animal life is sought. Special attention given to insects and birds on account of their nature study value and economic importance. The work culminates in a term's work in hu- man physiology. Required of all juniors not enrolled in Botany. Economic Biology. This course is designed especially for students of domestic science. The aim is to gain some fundamental conceptions of plant and animal structure and physiology, and to apply the knowledge thus gained to the problems of home-making. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Practical Forestry. Elective. Requires no previous training in biological science, altho a knowledge of elementary botany will prove helpful. The identification, propagation and care of the native trees and shrubs is studied in the field. Offered in the spring term of each year. Geography. First year. Three terms. First term: The fundamental facts and principles of mathematical and physical geography. Special topics treated through the use of the library, museum, and field excursions. The under- standing and use of topographic maps. Second term: A de- tailed study of North America and the United States, show- ing the relation of physiography and climate to the industries of the country and to the distribution of life. Third term: A further application of the first term's work to the other continents. Six weeks are given to Europe, the center of civilization, studying the life and industries of each country from a causal point of view. Review Geography. One term in the fourth year. The fundamental principles of mathematical and physical geogra- phy, together with a study of a few types in political and commercial geography. The work of the grades is outlined. Physical Geography. One term. Third year, elective. A more thorough understanding of the great agencies modi- fying the earth's relief, and of the conditions governing life upon its surface; the gaining of an ability to observe accu- rately the phenomena of nature and to explain approximately the more familiar ones. Geology. One term. Third year, elective. The forces and agencies by which the past and present relief of the earth has been determined, and their mode of operation. A short period is devoted to the study of common minerals and rocks in the laboratory, using the geological collections in the museum. Elementary Astronomy. One term. Third year elec- tive. Study of the more important heavenly bodies and the natural laws governing them, and the causes of climates, change of seasons, etc., preparatory to teaching geography and nature study in the grades. V A L L i: V CI T V NORMAL S C H () () L Training School. Mr. Hollis Miss Norton Miss Levens Miss Burns Miss Miller Miss Nelson Miss Portman The School of Practice gives the student an opportunity to apply his knowledge of psychology, general and special methods in the work of instruction, to observe children, and to gain skill in teaching. The school is made a typical one as far as possible in regard to curriculum, method of instruction, school management, and discipline of children. Each Normal School student is required to teach in the school of practice not less than one hour per day for one year before graduation. More practice will be required by the faculty, if the pupil seems to need it. Prior to taking practice work the student must have studied psychology, general and special method. The pupil teachers will be expected to help in the morning exercises, and control, as far as practicable, the children in their class rooms. Each teacher must be able to teach singing and drawing. Directions in regard to the general management, and the general duties of the pupil teachers are given to each student, together with an outline of the work that is to be done by each teacher. In the assignment of work, pupil teachers are given different grades to teach, and as far as possible their preferences are considered. A thorough academic and pedagogical preparation of every lesson is insisted upon. To secure this, plans are made out one week in advance. Each plan is corrected by either critic teacher or the supervisor, and plans are reconstructed by the pupil teachers on the basis of the various suggestions be- fore they are used. All instruction is under the direct supervision of the critic teacher or the supervisor. Assistance is given in the work of instruction, by the critic teacher teaching the class while the pupil teacher observes, by written suggestions, by personal conferences, and by general critic meetings. Gen- eral critic meetings are held once a week, on Wednesdays at VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL four. In these meetings general suggestions are given to all, corrections are made in the light of accepted educational theories, the application of certain principles of the work is discussed, the difficulties and faults of individual pupils are talked over, and the best ways of helping them are considered. Department critic meetings are held each Thursday at four, in the various Model school rooms. The Model school offers all grades from Kindergarten to eighth inclusive. The pupils are principally from Valley City, though the school is open to children from any part of the state. There is no tuition in this department. A student completing the course in the practice school is given a diploma, and admitted to the Normal department. The teaching in all grades is done partly by the seniors under the direct over- sight of the critic teacher in charge of each room and partly by the critic teachers themselves, who exhibit model lessons as the basis for observation on the part of the seniors. The school is supplied with needed appliances, and in every way is equal to the best elementary schools of the state. The moral and social tone of this department is of the highest order, on account of the contact which the pupils have with the students and teachers of the Normal department. Beginning next year, a ninth grade or first year high school class will be organized for model school graduates and other eighth grade graduates under sixteen years of age. The Model school pupils support an active athletic asso- ciation and have basketball and tennis courts of their own. Model school pupils have the most beautiful and well equipped play ground in the state. A school garden is cared for by the pupils, and a series of educational trips to the flour mill, electric railway and other industrial plants is distributed throughout the year. The Kindergarten course is of the standard two years' length, open to seniors or those who have an equivalent high school training. A diploma is granted, and a limited amount of practice is allowed those who take the work in Kindergar- ten theorv. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL The Conservatory of Music. Mr. Goodsell Mr. Froysaa Miss Dedrick. Miss Underwood Miss Healey Mr. Boughton The Conservatory of Music offers instruction in all branches of the musical art with a view to training not only singers and performers of merit, but also teachers of music so much needed in many communities of our state. Courses are offered in voice, piano, violin, mandolin, guitar, cornet, trombone, and other band and orchestral instruments. Among the leading features of this department may be mentioned a choral society of more than a hundred voices, a symphony orchestra, and a band. A number of recitals and concerts are given during the year, the season culminating in the splendid May Music Festival. Thuce the Conservatory has brought to Valley City the Minneapolis Symphony Or- chestra. Such famous artists as Lillian Nordica, Marcella Sembrich, Nellie Melba, David Bispham, and Ludwig Wullner have appeared in the Normal Auditorium. For detailed information regarding the work of this de- partment, address H. E. Goodsell, Dean. "The idea that instruction in music should not be isolated, that it should form a part of the education, is splendid; its practical application would certainly be of advantage to music as well as to education." — Franz Liszt. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL General Information. Location. VALLEY CITY, the county seat of Barnes County, is a thrifty city of 6,000 inhabitants at the junction of the Northern Pacific and the Sault Ste. Marie railroads. It is, therefore, easy of access from all parts of the state and of the country. All trains on both of these lines that do business in North Dakota stop at Valley City. The site of the city is picturesque, beautiful and healthful and furnishes abundant opportunity for profitable field work in geography, geology, agriculture and nature study. Building and Grounds. The school work is conducted in six large buildings on the main campus all connected with each other. The insti- tution owns its own power and heating plant, and all its buildings are lighted by electricity and scientifically venti- lated. Closets, bathrooms, lavatories, and gymnasia are abundant for the needs of all the students. The auditorium, in which all the general exercises are held, is the largest and best in the state. The grounds of the Normal School are highly attractive. The buildings are placed in a natural forest on a slight emi- nence at the foot of the high bluffs south of the city. The campus consists of 50 acres comprising a beautiful wooded park immediately bordered by the Sheyenne River and by tree-covered hillsides to the rear, and having sufficient level upland for an athletic park, school gardens, etc. VALLEY CITY NOR M A L SCHOOL History, W^^^HE State Normal School was located by the Consti- ■ ^j tutional Convention; the act founding it was ap- ^^^^ proved March 8, 1890. The school was first opened October 13, 1890, in a room rented for the purpose. The first maintenance was provided by appropriation March 2, 1892, and March 7th of the same year the act under which its operation is provided for was approved. A Board of Management was appointed and the school opened its doors for the second session September 28, 1891, supported by funds appropriated by the state. Its first building was dedi- cated September 6, 1892. Since that time it has erected or purchased for its use eight other buildings. Its faculty has grown from one member in 1890 to fifty instructors, 1911. Its first class graduated in June, 1894, and was three in num- ber. In 1911 the graduating class contains 149. The following table shows the most significant facts in relation to the yearly growth of the institution. Number Number Students Number Date of Opening m Normal Total Gradu- Average Summer Faculty Depart- ment No. ates Age School October 13, 1890 1 21 21 September 28, 1891 2 65 65 September 27, 1892 5 116 116 18. September 26, 1893 8 140 256 3 19.5 September 25, 1894 8 164 245 11 19.5 September 24, 1895 8 130 215 5 20.5 September 22, 1896 8 143 213 9 September 27, 1897 8 146 158 1 20.5 September 26, 1898 8 145 181 4 20.5 September 27, 1899 10 179 254 10 20.5 September 25, 1900 10 170 237 10 19.9 Seotember 24, 1901 11 230 315 18 19.7 September 23, 1902 14 302 478 33 19.4 September 24, 1903 16 336 636 33 19.8 189 September 27, 1904 18 402 841 48 19.5 289 October 3, 1905 25 443 997 69 19.5 383 September 25, 1906 26 480 1119 88 19.43 443 September 24, 1907 30 552 1278 109 19.02 529 September 29, 1908 33 624 1634 145 19.5 570 September 28, 1909 45 626 1511 133 19.3 580 September 27, 1910 47 622 1493 149 20. 645 Library. The school has a good working library of about 8,000 volumes. It occupies a large room on the second floor and is VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL easily accessible from all parts of the institution. Educational documents from other states and all North Dakota documents are on file in the library. In connection with the library an excellent reading room is maintained. It is supplied with newspapers and periodi- cals, and indexes give ready access to any article in these peri- odicals. Most of the state papers are on file so that students can read home news in the library of the institution. The city maintains a free Carnegie library open to all students of the Normal School; this library has a reading room and 3,000 volumes of well selected books. Museums. The curator is now giving her entire time to the manage- ment of an excellent museum which contains a large herbarium and collection of zoological types, fine private collection of eggs, hundreds of conchological and geological specimens, and other material of great service to the Biological and Agri- culture departments. Beside these, it has a large industrial collection including pictures, maps, railroad folders, stereop- ticon views, globes, and contributions from the leading manu- facturing firms of the country. All this material is in daily use in the class rooms of both the Normal School and Practice Department. The museum furnishes ample illustrative material for training school classes as well as for normal school instruction. A large supply of post cards is used in various classes with the projectoscope. It is open to visitors at somewhat irregular hours and the curator as his time and strength permits, will give lectures using the collections for illustrative purposes. Lecture Course. The Valley City Lecture Association supports the most expensive list of talent between Minneapolis and Butte. It will spend $1200.00 next season. The following talent was heard in the course last year : VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Maud Ballington Booth. Judge Ben w J>indsey. Sterling Jubilee Quartette. Chicago Operatic Company. William Battis. The Welsh Singers. Castle Square Quartette, and several others. Next season the association will surpass its own notable record by presenting the following attractive course : Alton Packard, the Sketch Artist. Whitney Brothers Male Quartet. Francis T. Heney, prosecutor of San Francisco boodlers. Laurant, the magician. The Le Brune Operatic Company. Congressman Berger, on Socialism. G. O. Shields, the Bird Man. Frank B. Cannon, first Senator from Utah in his expose of Mormonism, and one or two others yet to be selected. Students' tickets to the complete course are usually sold for $1.25. This gives students an opportunity to meet world- famous men, eminent lecturers, and artistic musicians, at a merely nominal cost. The Valley City Chautauqua Assembly offers ten days of instruction and entertainment in July. All students of the Summer school are furnished with a ticket to all of its pro- grams without other expense than the usual entrance fee of the school. Musical Advantages. Special encouragement is given to musical work at the Normal School. In 1908 the department of music was estab- lished, called the Normal School Conservatory. This depart- ment offers instruction in all phases of musical art and aims to train not only singers and performers of merit, but also teachers of music so much needed in many communities in our state. Private instruction is offered in voice, piano, violin, mandolin, guitar, trombone, and other band and or- chestral instruments. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL A leading feature of this Conservatory is the Choral Society of more than 100 voices giving at least two great con- certs each year. A symphony orchestra is also conducted. The music of the year culminates in a splendid May Musical Festival which, for two years past, has been assisted by the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra and a large party of soloists. It is the aim of the institution to bring to the students and to the community at least one of the world-famous artists each year: November 29, 1909, Madame Sembrich, the cele- brated soprano sang, and November 14, 1908, Madame Nor- dica appeared in the auditorium. As a step in advance of even these great musical achieve- ments, the Normal Conservatory presented in the auditorium, October 19, 1910, the world's acknowledged greatest living soprano, Madame Nellie Melba. The artist for 1911 has not been selected but a contract will be made with the best talent available in this part of the country. Every year singing classes are offered in the regular Normal department free to all students. The first year's work mastering the technical phases of the subject; the second year offers rehearsals in chorus singing. The Glee Club is an organization of young ladies who have had the two years' instruction above referred to. They hold weekly meetings under the direction of the instructor of pub- lic school singing. An orchestra has been maintained for several years, to which any student having a suitable instru- ment may be admitted without expense. The Normal School Band is an attractive organization and is open to both young men and young women who are musically inclined. Instruction is also offered in this organi- zation. A mandolin and guitar club will be formed if the demand be sufficient to justify it. Religious Influence. Any teaching sectarian in religion or partisan in politics is contrary to the policies of the institution. It aims, how- V A L L BY CITY N O R M A L SCHOOL ever, to develop a high moral sense and a true Christian spirit. A very simple religious exercise is a feature of each daily assembly. Students are urged to attend the church of their choice at least once each Sunday. The students have, themselves, organized and are regu- larly conducting a Y. M. C. A. and a Y. W. C. A., and there is a Newman Club for the Catholic students. These organi- zations usually hold weekly meetings. These two societies conduct many forms of bible study and other forms of religious instruction including a course of lectures on Sunday School aims and methods in the spring term. Christian organizations aim to shape the social life of the institution and to serve incoming students by meeting them at the train, securing boarding places, and helping in other matters where new students have need. Athletics. The students of the school support an athletic associa- tion; football, basketball, baseball, and track work can be participated in by any who desire these forms of exercise and practice. The school has made an excellent record in its ath- letic work, and one instructor gives a part of every day to this feature. The school provides ample gymnasia, athletic grounds with football field and baseball diamond, several tennis courts, and daily instruction in calisthenics. Expenses. Tuition is free, but a matriculation fee is required by authority of the board of trustees. Those who enter in the fall term pay $5.00, winter term $4.00, and spring term $3.00. These fees are paid on the day of entrance. In addition, each student is required to deposit $1.00 to cover breakage or damage to school property; this fee is returned at the close of the year, if there are no charges against the student. Expenses at this institution are as low as at any school in the Northwest; at the same time, a high standard of living is maintained. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Board and room can be obtained for $3.50 a week. By the formation of clubs, board and room can be had for less; other expenses are what the student chooses to make them. The institution now has three fine dormitories near the school accommodating 150 young women. Everything in them for comfortable living is furnished except soap and napkin ring, both of which the student should bring. The charge is $45.00 for the term of 12 weeks payable by the month, always in advance. No reductions or commutations are allowed except in cases of severe sickness. Young women in these Halls are under the direct charge of the matron, subject to rules posted in the building. The Episcopal Church owns and operates a delightful home for young ladies within two blocks of the school, fur- nishing board and room at a very moderate price. A com- petent matron is in charge. The Methodist Episcopal Church also operates, as a feature of their Wesley College work, a home for young women in which young ladies from Methodist homes are given preference. A matron conducts this institution also, and the charges are very moderate. These dormitories are under a distinct religious influence without sectarianism. Students desiring to reserve a room in advance should send $2.00 to the President of the school, expressing at the same time their preference among these several dormitories. The $2.00 is credited on the first month's board. In case the student does not come within the first two days of school, this fee is forfeited. Students are advised to reserve their rooms in advance. In addition to the above facilities, there are a large num- ber of private homes which make a practice of accommodat- ing students of the Normal School at prices that vary accord- ing to location and kind of accommodation offered. No stu- dent need hesitate to come to Valley City any time in the year, even though a boarding place has not been secured in advance. The school always has a list of private boarding places at its office and gladly help all students to find a home in Valley City. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Book Store. The school conducts a small book store where students can secure books and all students' materials at prices less than those usually charged at retail book stores. Pure Water. The Normal School is supplied with water from a spring on its own grounds of unusual power and palatability. It has been analyzed by Professor E. F. Ladd, State Food Commis- sioner, and is found to be of exceptional purity. This water is supplied to all parts of the building. To the ample use of this pure water, with the regular physical exercise required of all students, is attributed the phenomenal health which has always characterized the student body. Absence for sickness is rare. Germ diseases having their source in the water supply are very infrequent indeed. Faculty Advisory System. In order to keep in closer touch with the lives of students and understand their needs more fully, students are assigned in groups of about twenty to the several members of the faculty. The instructor thus becomes in a peculiar sense, "guide, philosopher and friend" to each of his own group. He or she considers with each student such questions as study hours, course of study to be pursued, conduct of social affairs, health, boarding house arrangements, and many other prob- lems that students have to solve. All cases of sickness are reported at once to the faculty adviser, and protracted ab- sences are investigated by him. In this way the individual needs of the student are not lost sight of in the mass. Advice To Intending Students. Read this book carefully. Do not be afraid to ask questions, by letter before you arrive, or personally at the office after arrival. Be present the first day of the term if possible. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Do not take too many subjects. Five is the maximum without faculty permission. Report to the office for all needed assistance and advice immediately upon arrival. Bring such text books and books of reference as you may have. Some Things Expected Of Students. There are few rules to be observed at this institution, but the following requirements seem to be dictated by good sense and our experience in dealing with large bodies of stu- dents and may be said to express the school ideals. Students are, therefore, required: To conform to rules that may be announced from time to time. To be prompt and regular in attendance on all school exercises. To observe such hours of study as may be designated. To conform to the ordinary usages of good society in their relations to the public, to the teachers, and to each other. To leave the city only on permission of the faculty ad- viser. To occupy no boarding house not approved at the office. To take proper care of all school property they may be using. To refrain from any action that would bring discredit upon the good name of the student body. To refrain from participation in private classes, local entertainments, social functions, or any other enterprise that will clash with school w r ork, until the consent of the President has been secured. To submit to full physical examination by the physical director of the school upon entrance and after being infected with any contagious disease. To secure a written statement from the physical director before re-entering, authorizing his return. V A L L E V CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Conclusion. The school is the property of the state, more particularly of the teachers of the state. Its class exercises are always open to the public. Every citizen of the state is cordially welcome at any time. For further information concerning the school, and for bulletins and circulars, address THE PRESIDENT OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL, VALLEY CITY, NORTH DAKOTA. VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Catalogue of Students. GRADUATES DECEMBER 17, 1910 — NINE ONE YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Anderson, Levi F., Warren, Minn. Dunning, Lillie E., Buffalo Springs. Hampen, Sina, Everett, Wash. Leighton, Nellie, Cavalier McCullen, M. Lucille, Underwood Nepstad, Emma B., Oakes Peterson, Nora, Lyle, Minn. Strand, Edna Henrietta, Fergus Falls, Minn. Waldie. Ruby V., Dickey GRADUATES MARCH 2.5, 1911 — FIVE Backman, Eva U., Rushford, Minn. Brown, Lucy E., Thompson Daugherty, Maude, Indianapolis, Ind. Geir, Lauga, Edinburg Purdon, Clara M., Wahpeton GRADUATES JUNE 23, 1911 — ONE HUNDRED ONE FOUR YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Bemis, Alice Cora, Courtenay Bemis, Hazel Martha, Courtenay Bemis, Lula Pearl, Courtenay Borderud, Geneva H., Davenport Brindle, Verda May, Hazelton Brinton, Mary Ethel, Fessenden Campbell, Cora I., Wyndmere Chilberg, Hazel L., Valley City Cruden, Catherine, Amenia Duncan, Jessie, Josephine Farley, Margaret, Spiritwood Fitch, Florence, Napoleon Forbes, Hazel J., Washburn Johnson, Nora C, Valley City Kunkel, Gladys, Fessenden La Lander, Mathilde J., Cooperstown Lannon, Grace C, Valley City McAndrew, Gertrude A., Cogswell Mc Andrew, Julia, Cogswell McMichael, Mildred, Hope Maxwell, Esther F., Wilton Schroeder, Cornelia, Valley City Schulestad, Lottie, Reynolds Selden, Eleanor Bertha, Valley City Stuff, Dorothy G., Jamestown Swanson, Axel F., Valley City Wilson, Juliette, Fargo ONE YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Ackerman, Marie, New England Agern, Ida, Fergus Falls, Minn. Anderson, Cora A., Bathgate Arhart, Florence, New Ulm, Minn. Axness, Clara C, Willmar, Minn. Barkee, Genevieve, Cooperstown Barry, Aimee G., Hermann, Minn. Bridston, Olga A., Wahpeton Brown, Edna N., Bismarck Bye, Josephine, Kenmare Clark, Teresa L., Kenmare Cole, Emma J., Hope Cole, Olive F., Hope Cowin, Vernadel M., St. Thomas Dalrymple, Gertrude, Casselton Davidson, Nellie, Williston Daymon, Elizabeth, Drayton Dyste, Marie, Forman Engle, Metta L., Enderlin Erickson, Florence A., Fergus Falls, Minn. Flint, Helen, Terry, Mont. Foster, Lucile L., Valley City Fox, Coral M., Grand Forks Froelich, Frances, Minto Gardner, Faith L., Fargo Grinager, Elizabeth, Lisbon Haas, Menga B., New Rochford Hall, Teresa M., Grafton Hanson, Laura A., Grafton Harden, Delia M., Breckenridge, Minn. Hendrickson, Nora H., Kenmare Hillier, Lottie A., Grafton Hoff, Lillian E., Sheldon Horstmann, Hilda E., Barron, Wis. Hugelin, Henry J., Fergus Falls, Minn. Hulbert, Lula E., Barron, Wis. Karr, William M., Valley City Keene, Vera, Valley City Kersting, Nellie Mae, Black River Falls, Wis. Kruempel, Martha E., LaMoure Landblom, William A., Fargo Larson, Jenevieve, Barron, Wis. Lillethun, Lydia R., Red Wing, Minn. Lindblad, Gertrude E., Driscoll Lindgren, Eva C, Red Wing, Minn. Marvel, Nellie, Brittin Maurer, Ada M., Bismarck Monte wske, Martha, Minto Morden, Mabel H., Cavalier Morris, Jennie I., Carrington Morris, Kathleen, Carrington Mounger, Rebecca Adele, Williston Murphy, Amabel C , Grafton Murray, Etta, Lisbon Nepstad, Inga A., Oakes Novotny, Anna M., Lidgerwood Peterson, Bertha M., Stanton Pieh, Lillie M., Enderlin Quigg, Carol ynn E., Oakes Ranes, Ruth, Lisbon Roach, Teresa M., Carrington Schuster, Anna M., Calio Skjod, Leona Mae, Man dan Skretting, Ida M., Valley City VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Smith, Frances M., Vallcv City vStahlum, M. Florence. Valley City Sutterlin, Lena S., St. Thomas Thompson, Lenore Easton, Devils Lake Tice, Vesta M., Larimore Titus, Leonora B., Buffalo Tucker, Mildred I., Page Traynor, Gertrude, Grand Forks Wagle, Marie, Valley City White, Grace C, Marshall, Minn. Willis, Ruth C, Rhame Young, Clare M., Wahpeton FIVE YEAR ADVANCED COURSE Buchholz, Theodore G., Davenport Best, Helen M., Enderlin TWO YEAR ADVANCED COURSE Fitzgerald, J. Edward, Valley City Anderson, Minnie, Valley City Domestic Science Arhart, Florence, New Ulm, Minn. Domestic Science B organ, Dagney M., Wahpeton Domestic Science Backman, Eva U., Rushford, Minn Music and Drawing Banish/William, Sheldon Manual Training Erlandson, Josephine, Helena Domestic Science SPECIAL COURSE Fristad, Millie, Norma Music and Drawing Gullickson, Bertha, Enderlin Music and Drawing Marsh, Helen, Steele Physical Education Natwick, Tilda R., Viroqua, Wis. Domestic Science Westergaard, Elvina, Buffalo Music and Drawing GRADUATES AUGUST 9, 1911 TWO YEAR ADVANCED COURSE Zabel, Amanda, Valley City TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE McCullen, M. Lucile, Underwood Domestic Science Swenson, Florence, Valley City Domestic Science Arnold, Cecil, Beach GRADUATES AUGUST 9, 1911 FOUR YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Young, Jessie E., Valley City ONE YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Anderson, Norma E., Grafton Carlson, Ida C, Detroit, Minn. Davidson, Nellie, Williston Dean, Carrie St. John, Hatton Ferguson, Ethel E., Drayton Helbing, Geneva S., Glenwood, Minn. Koehmstedt, Ellen ora, Langdon Larson, Martha C, Sheldon Love, Olive Beth, Jamestown McPherson, Constance I., Valley City Mann, Lena, New Salem Milton, Mabel, Valley City Morrison, Violet, Sheldon Nichols, Mary Elta, Oakes Odell, Ella M., Willmar, Minn. Scheidt, Hulda, Kulm Serbo, Nora S., Reynolds Van Camp, Ella, St. Thomas Wilkie, Ella, Valier, Mont. GRADUATES DECEMBER 16, 1911 FOUR YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Anderson, Guss M., Valley City Anderson, Oscar, Valley Qity Barr, Walter W., Valley City Cannell, Mona E., Glen Ullin Carlson, Edwin, Valley City Christensen, Marie M., Kensal Hrabe, Nettie, Knox ONE YEAR ELEMENTARY COURSE Clark, Elizabeth, Valley City Elmslie, Ida B., Devils Lake Evingson, Caroline J., Kindred Goss, Pearl I., New Rockford Hansen, Clara M., Wahpeton Hersey, Jennie, New Rockford Olson, Jennie, Valley City Parizek, Adda, Lidgerwood VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL STUDENTS DOING SENIOR WORK Anderson, Emma E., Muskegon, Mich. Anfinson, Eva M., Valley City Borrill, Elfreda, New England Creighton, Alice, Spiritwood Douglas, Laura M., Bembina Ferguson, Mary I., Lisbon Gray, Edna, Hope Grover, Genevieve M., Grafton Halpin, Sara E., Crosby Hanson, Mabel G., Kenyon, Minn. Muir, Maude A., LaMoure Murray, May, Wahpeton Morton, Ada, Page Peterson, Jennie E., Eau Claire, Wis. Smith, Violet, Fosston, Minn. SPECIAL STUDENTS Bagemiel, Alice, Casselton Berg, Alma, Valley City Blank, Etta, Valley City Chamberlain, Emma E., Oakes Colville, Clarence, Valley City Cowell, Ella, Valley City Crane, Mabel, Enderlin Faust, Bertha, Valley City Funfar, Mary, Glenville Gray, Amy, Valley City McDonald, Florence A., Valley City McDonald, Marjorie J., Valley City Anderson, Edna E., Valley City Anderson, Emma, Valley City Austfjord, Eikard, Hensel Barningham, Vida, Valley City Bekkerus, Emma O., Hurdsfield Bleese, Adolph B., Enderlin Borchert, Otto, Cooperstown Bougler, Nellie, Starkweather Brewster, Hazel, Valley City Bull, Jorina, Cooperstown Collis, Edith, Medora Eidsvig, Martha, Eastedge Faust, Tyra, Valley City Fifield, Mae, Wyndmere Gale, Jessie E., Valley City Galegher, Alice, Thompson Galegher, Myrtle, Thompson Getchell, Miriam, Valley City Graber, Carl, Starkweather Granger, Clifford, Valley City Hartnett, Katherine, Napoleon Hendrickson, Ella L., Tunbridge Hersey, Jennie, New Rockford Herziger, Genevieve, Valley City Johnson, Bessie, Buchanan Abelein, E. Villa, Anamoose Anderson, '^Louise A., Glover Angelsberg, Marie, Thompson Barr, Edward A., Page Barr, Louise W., Page Barr, Milton, Valley City Barr, William, Valley City Bekkerus, Signe A., Hurdsfield Belzer, Tusse, White Rock, S. D Blake, Maggie C, DeLamere Bohan, Blanche, Tolley Boyd, May Jeannette, Crary Brander, Jennie M., Souris Brooke, Dorothy, Valley City Brown, Bertha, Durand, Wis. Bullamore, Edna, Glen Ullin Carlson, Mabel, Coleharner Carter, Pearl, Glen Ullin Cichocki, Michael, Valley City Conitz, Sclma M. A., Youngtown McFarland, Genevieve, Valley City Mason, Blanche Geneva, Valley City Meldahl, Agnes, Valley City Miller, Emma, Fargo Murphy, Alice, Faribault, Minn. Peake, Esther A., Valley City Port, Caroline, Casselton Schulte, Ada M., Casselton Sternberg, Elsie R., Valley City Thompson, Adele, Devils Lake Wilson, Lubelle, Fargo CLASS OF 1912 Johnson, Ellen, Colgate Johnson, Maude C, Barlow Jones, Flossie, Steele Lahlum, Alma, Valley City Lannon, Maude, Valley City Lyken, Luella, Cogswell, Montgomery, Olive H., Cogswell Myhre, Ruth, Valley City Nankivel, James E., Becker Norgard, Berit, Valley City Peterson, Anna P., Sheyenne Qualey, Ruth, Marion Schmidt, Lena K., Abercrombie Shank, Alice, Milnor Skorpen, Celia, Valley City Stephens, L. Louise, Valley City Stevens, Blanche H., Oakes Stevens, Faith F., Oakes Veeder, Ethelyn, Mandan Whalin, Alma, Fingal Willman, Emil, Almont, Wilson, Ruth Verona Withee, Grace, Ellendale Wyman, Maude, Minneapolis, Minn. CLASS OF 1913 Cornish, Lulu L., Valley City Cowdrey, Roy, Sanborn Cross, Marjorie, Valley City Cudd, Minnie, Mapleton Davis, Christine, Valley City Downie, Florence Edith, Lignite Ellingson, Hilda Anete. Chandler Ellingson, Emma M., Chandler Ennis, Dot, Pettibone Ensey, Kathryn, Valley City Esby, Myrtle, Valley City Esby, Nora J., Valley City Faust, Marcus, Valley City Fett, Louise, Hubbard, Iowa Flynn, Cassie Eva, Eckelson Fosgate, Laura, Lamoine Fridd, Gladys, Valley City Fritch, Carl I., Deckerville Furgeson, Alpha, Valley City Furgeson, Marie, Valley City VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Gaxtside, E. Lydia, Glen Ullin Gilbertson, Anna, Cogswell Granger, Glen, Valley City Grindahl, Mary, Litchville Groshon, Mrs. Myrtle E., Harvey Gunderson, Anna M., Valley City Gunderson, Gunda I., Valley City Halver, Mabel, Stark Hansen, Fannie, Valley City Hansen, Florence Valley City Hanson, Lessley, Valley City Hartnett, Lester, Napoleon Heimes, Clara F., Valley City Hendreckson, Emma, Mandan Hill, Gladys P., Valley City Hinkle, Goldie, Edgeland Hock, Libbie, Knox Hoggarth, Ernest, Hannaford Hrabe, Lydia, Knox Hussey, John A., Bordiilac Jenson, Hanna, Valley City Johnson, Clara, E dm ore Johnson, Mabel, Washburn Johnson, Mabel J., Valley City Johnson, Melvin, Valley City Jones, Gladys, Glen Ullin Jordahl, Mary Helen, Hoople Kjelland, Annie, Hastings Kjelland, Alma Blanche, Litchville Klubben, Bertha, Cooperstown Kramer, Maryann, Valley City Larson, Mary M., Valley City Larson, Amanda Rose, Dickey Larson, Grace, Valley City LaRue. Ruth Frances, Rhame McConnell, Ida, Wheatland McDonnell, Winifred, Valley City McFarland, R. Kenneth, Valley City McKay, Katie A., Hope McLees, Raymond, Sanborn McMonagle, J. H., Wahpeton Mackey, Arthur, Valley City Aas, Alexander, Valley City Aas, Selma, Valley City Abraham, Hattie, Minot Anderson, Andrew C, Marion Anderson, Blenda C, Washburn Barr, Elize B. C, Valley City Barr, Elsie J., Valley City Bemis, Hulda, Valley City Berg Martin, Hastings Besuchet, Lily, Newark, S. D. Borthwick, Mamie, Hamar Boucher, Ellen V., Medina Brindle, Lura L., Hazelton Brudeset, Tom J., Valley City Buchholz, Paul E., Davenport Burchill, Anna, Ashtabula Burke, Mabel A., McHenry Conitz, Hilmar, Bluegrass Cook, Ada Beatrice, Mott Cronen, Estelle M., Vallev City Dedrick, Hugh, Valley City Delameter, Vera Grace, Knox DeLancey, Helen M., Valley City DeLancey, Thomas, Valley City Deming, Louise, Valley City Dolan, Hazel, Nekoma Duncan, Edwin, Josephine Feltmann, Augusta, Valley City Finley, Ida, Page Flynn, Mary Eckelson Fuglass, Anna, Aneta Martin, Emma A., Oldham, S. D. Moe, Ida M., Valley City Myhre, Ernest, Valley City Myhro, Ida, Valley City Nelson, Daymar, Ft. Ransom Oleson, Edwin, Chandler Olson, Emilie M., Tower City Olstad, Magda, Valley City Pederson, Bessie, Wimbledon Pettit, Pearl, Backoo Pickard, Cccile, Turtle Lake RatzlafT, Minnie F. C, Valley City Riebe, Helena, Pingree Rogne, Margaret, Manfred Roth, Esther E., McKenzie Roth, Florence F., McKenzie Sandberg, Eva, Valley City Schony, Carrie B., Steele Schulstad, Olivy, Reynolds Severson, Martina, Kindred Shrum, Edmund J., Valley City Skonnard, Arthur, Valley City Skonnard, Richard, Valley City Skorpen, Karen, Valley City Skorpen, Thomas, Valley City Sowden, Alice, Valley City Stansbury, Mamie Elizabeth, Finley Stenshoel, Clara, Valley City Stenshoel, Elsie, Valley City Tangen, Peter, Pekin, Tanner, Olive A., Milnor Thoreson, Anne, Nome Thune, Lewis M., Kathryn Turk, Alta, Vallev Citv Wahl, Hilda K., Washburn Walker, Flora, Kathrvn White, Gussie, Valley" City Witting, Amanda, Bottineau Wooland, Emma O., Valley City Wr ght, Sara, Valley City Yaeger, Jeannette, Jamestown CLASS OF 1914 Furgeson, Evrin Clarence, Valley City Gerntholz, Hattie L., Sanborn Gerntholz, Martha I., Sanborn Goeschel, Albert, New Salem Graber, Peter, Alsen Granger, Allen S., Valley City Greenwood, Ruby L., Valley City Grim, Valborg, Argyle, Minn. Hansen, Mabel Blenda, Valley City Harker, Florence, Rugby Harper, Earl V . Wiboux, Mont. Heyerdahl, Gilbert, Walum Ims, Inga, Sims Johannesen, Irene, McHenry Johannesen, Lonina, Kathryn Jacobson, Ida Marie, Nome Johnson, Archie, Braddock Johnson Valborg, Sims Jones, Minnie C., Mercer Jorgenson, Gertrude G., Bowman Kane, Mae E., Spiritwood Kelly, Margaret M., McCanna King, Ruth E., Starkweather Kjelland, Clara, Valley City Kraemer, Emma, Goodrich Kulseth, Margaret, Valley City Larson, Alice Valley City Larson, Clara, Valley City Larson, Harold, Valley City Lohr, Charles Wesley, Pettibone Lovelace, Florence Ella, Ft. Ransom VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Luchsinger, Stella E., Windsor Lynne, Lawrence, Valley City McFarland, Dorothy, Valley City McLennan, Russell, Hope MacDonald, Ethel, Valley City Marsh, Louise, Russell Meldahl, Lizzie, Valley City Menard, Genevieve E., Wilton Monson, Estella, Center Munson, Ellen D., Hastings, Minn. Myhra, Christine, Noonan Nelson, Adelia, Valley City Nelson, Nanna C, Dazey Nicholls, Alma M. E., Ypsilanti Olson, Clara E., Tower City Payton, Alta B., Oakes Pederson, Eistein, Valley City Peterson, Alva, Valley City Rasmussen, Mary, Hannaford Rathje, Esther, Tower City Rathje, Robert, Tower City Rathje, Lillie, Tower City- Rath je, George, Tower City Ratzlaff, Carl, Valley City Roberts, Harry, Medina Roth, Bessie, McKenzie Rude, Sarah, Valley City Rudh, Mary, Rothsay, Minn. Runner, Grace M., Laromore Sebby, Christine, Wimbledon Selbo, Conard, Valley City Selden, Howard D., Valley City Setz, Louise, Valley City Sheldon, Elizabeth, Balfour Sherlock, Agnes, Valley City Siverts, Minnie, Marshall Smith, Lester, Valley City Stack, Walter, Valley City Stiles, George, Valley City Stuewig, Benjamin, Valley City Suby, Selma, Nome Swenson, Clara, Valley City Tanner, Frances M., Milnor Tanner, Mabel, Milnor Vaught, Zoe M., Steele Weckerly, Norma, Deiscoll Wermager, Gusta, Houston, Minn. Wessels, Eva May, Neche White, Edwin, Valley City Wilson, Glen C, St. Peter, Minn. COMMERCIAL STUDENTS Aldahl, Geo. M.. Vallev City Bailey, Ralph, Valley City Barchus, Howard, Valley City Baumez, Edwin, Valley City Bolstad, Ivor, Valley City Bonhus, Thos., Valley City Burke, Kathryn, Hermann, Minn. Burkhart, Alta, Deering Burchill, John, Valley City Burchill, Wm„ Valley City Davidson. Harry T., Valley City Enerson, Palmer, Valley City Erickson, Martha, Valley City Fitzgerald, Leon, Valley City Grotberg, Clara, Vallev City Hart, Paul F., Valley City Hoiland, Eison, Valley City Jensen, Estelle C, Valley City Kernkamp, Leroy, Valley City Kloubec, Edwin, LaMoure Lampman, Clifford, Valley City Laughlin, Mrs. O. A., Valley City Lees, Norman, Buchanan McCready, Edgar, Valley City McDonald, Ronald, Valley City Markuson, Alfred, Valley City Montgomery, Mabel, Oriska Moore, Thomas, Valley City Myhre, Howard, Valley City Nicoli, Lewis Carl, Valley City Noltimier, Earl, Valley City Nordgaard, Julis, Valley City Oppegaard, Carrie, VaUey City Pederson, Peder, Vallev City Personius, Alfred, Vallev City Ray, Edna, Valley City' Redman, George, Chicago, 111. Roth, Ernest, McKenzie Rude, Chester, Valley City Setz, George, Valley City Smith, Chester, Valley City Smith, Fred H., Valley City Starke, Gertrude, Valley City Stewart, Wm. R., Valley Citv Stuewig, Hittie, Valley City Swanson, Bernard, Valley City Thorkelson, Harold, Valley City Vaupel, Vera, Malta, Mont. Washburn, Harvey L., Valley City White, John M., Valley City Zimmerman, Theodore GRADUATES FROM THE RURAL SCHOOL COURSE, AUGUST 26, 1910 - NINE Caldwell, Alta I., Coleharbor Caldwell, Ella, Beach Graber, Ida, Hensel Edd, Ebba, Milnor Hutchings, Zoe M., Sheldon Nelson, Cornie, Tappen Myhre, Mollie G., Colfax Tabbert, Anna, Sanborn Sellie, Hulda B., Sorkness GRADUATES FROM THE RURAL SCHOOL COURSE, DECEMBER 17, 1910 Agarand, Angie, Hansboro Agarand, Louisa, Hansboro TWO GRADUATES FROM THE RURAL SCHOOL COURSE, MARCH 25, 1911 Ellestad, Mabelle, Kindred Satterthwaite, Grace, Pana, 111. TWO VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL CANDIDATES FOR GRADUATION, RURAL SCHOOL COURSE, AUGUST 9, 1911 Anderson, Cora P., Manfred Bekkerus, Marie, Hurdsfield Bliss, Jennie, Bottineau Boutch, Agnes M., Fried Broderson, Mamie, Pingree Burgess, Flora A., Marshall Cornish, Lulu, Valley City Dirks, Elizabeth, Pingree Frownfelter, Sylvia, Kensal Gallipo, Myrtle, Valley City Gibson, Jay W., Valley City Gran, Elma R., Gardena Haldi, Selma, Drake Hatch, Princess, Baldwin Hoflen, Pearl, Rutland Holter, Agnes, Valley City Kleinschmidt, Frieda, Balfour Larson, Mamie, Carpio Logan, Elja, Deering Luchsinger, Edna M., Windsor Lunde, Cam, Cooperstown Lynne, Annie, Mose McKay, Gladys M., Grand Harbor Mickelson, Mathilda, Ft. Ransom Ming, Sallie, DeSart Mitchell, Ellen P., Stanley Nelson, Hilda, Fingal Peterson, Annie, Columbus Puterbaugh, Carrie, New Home. Renz, Florence, McKenzie Richardson, Grace, Warwick Rockswold, Emma B., Litchville Rosberg, Mamie, Underwood Schroeder, Aletta, Valley City Schultz, Dorothv, Balfour Sherlock, Blanch, Valley City Stanley. Laura. Thompson Thue, "Ida P., Deapolis Wooland, Theresa, Valley City STUDENTS DOING RURAL COURSE WORK Berg, Bessie, Kathryn Black, Christena, Devils Lake Enge, Mathilda, Milnor Frownfelter, Clara, Kensal Gryde, Tilda, Hoople Haarsager, Peter, Litchville Krug, Letta, Valley City Monson, Myrtle, Cooperstown Fernyhough, Leeda May, Hansboro Poulson, Myrtle B., Goodrich Thoreson, Marie, Nome Wightman, Bernice, Valley City Summer School Students -- 1910 Aas, Leif H., Northwood Adams, Caroline Edna, Sterling Agarand, Louise, Hansboro Albrecht, Lydia E., Fried Albrecht, Alice A., Fried Albrecht, Anna, Wimbledon Allen, Blanche. Noel Alness, Magdeline, Viroqua, Wis. Ames, Marv, Casselton Ames. Myrtle, Casselton Amundson, Gurina, Watson, Minn. Anderson, Emma Louise, Valley City Anderson, Mabel O.. Cooperstown Anderson, Levi F., Bottineau Anderson, Hilda Cecelia, Valley City Anderson, Edna Elirra, Valley City Anderson, Bessie, Valley City Anderson, Edith N., Hannaford Andreasen, Esther, Valley City Anglesberg, Marie, Thompson Arnold, Cecil, Beach Arntson, Lena, Lisbon Arves, Anna E., Kathryn Atkins, Eva, Berlin Aughnay, Florence M., Mandan Ayars, Flora, New Richland, Minn. Ayars, Florence E., New Richland, Minn. Ayrea, Inez,_ Cooperstown Ayrea, Mattie, Cooperstown Baarstad, Louise, Eastedge Badger, Clara Amy, Colgate Balsizer, Wm. A., Schafer Bauknecht, Tilda M., Mandan Barchus, Lura, Valley City Bard, Eva Barningham, Vida, Valley City Barr, Clara Lydia, Page Bate, Mary Helen, Charles City Iowa Bate, Lois J., Floyd, Iowa Baunez, Clara, Valley City Beach, Hazel, Courtenay Beal, May, Valley City Beckler, Harriet M., Buffalo Springs Beckman, Jennie, Edmunds Belzer, Clara E., Elliott Belzer, Tusse, White Rock, S. D. Bennett, Wm. R., Valley City Berg, Oney Jennett, Courtenay Berg, Hulda. Cooperstown Bergman, Ellen, Verndale, Minn. Berland, Anna, Nome Berland, Alma, Nome Billing, Elizabeth, Lisbon Billing, Margaret, Lisbon Bixby, Millie, Lisbon Black, Anna E., Cooperstown Black, Ella, Cooperstown Boardman, Ada R., Rochester, Minn. Bocan, Mabelle Marcella, Lona Boeder, Maude Elizabeth, New Rockford Bohan. Mary Ilene, Tallex Bolstad, Mabel, Valley City Borlang, Selma B., Wimbledon Borrill, Elfreda, New England Borthweck, Mamie, Hamar Boulger, Nellie, Starkweather Bowen, Gladys, Farman Bower, Harry, Edmunds Bracht, Gertrude, Chaffee Brand, Laurs M., LaMoure Brander, Jennie M., Sauris Brech, Lena Mary, Kensel Brindle, Carrie Estella, Ha^elton Brink, Martha, Detroit, Minn. Brinton, Ethel, Fessenden Brintton, Mathilda, Hannaford VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Brubaker, Caddie Ruth, Cando Brunelle, Bertha Marie, Valley City Bratow, Lynda L., Driscoll Buh, Alma R., Gem Burge, Ethel, Linton Burgess, Marie A., Marshall Burns, Mamie, Glen Ullin Burkkart, M. Voila, Zion Bull, Jorina, Cooperstown Butlong, Martha O., Casselton Caine, Grace, Shelden Caldwell, Alta I., Coleharbor Caldwell, Ella, Beach Campbell, Marie, Enderlin, Cannell, Esther, Glen Ullin Cantwell, Mary, Mandan Carlson, Chas. G., Ft. Ranson Carlson, Alice Martilda, Lisbon Carlson, Mabel I., Coal Harbor Carlson, Nellie V., Forman Carpenter, Nellie J., Ashley Carroll, Kathrine, Warwick Carter, Clara L., Glen Ullin Cast, Mary Edith, Jamestown Chamberlain, Jennie, Anamoose Chamberlain, Harry G., Anamoose Chapman, Ethel A., Tower City Chilberg, Hazel Liona, Valley City Christenson, Amanda, Little Falls, Minn. Cichocki, Michael, Skogmo Clark, Alice C, Bismarck Coney, Cloe, Wimbledon Connelly, Acille B., Ft. Ransom Connelly, Anna B., Eckelson Connelly, Mae, Ft. Ransom Connolly, Genevieve B., Hensler Connolly, Mary, Eckelson Connolly, Nellie E., Hensler Conwell, Alice, Eckelson Corcoran, Mae M., Belle Plaine, Minn. Cosgrove, Eva, Wheatland Cosgrove, Kathrine, Madison, S. D. Coughlin, Blanche, Detroit, Minn. Covert, Ray E., Randall, Minn. Cowin, Veradel, St. Thomas _ Craig, Mildred, Big Lake, Minn. Crites, Rosa, Jamestown Croman, Estelle Mary, Valley City Cross, Mrs. Garnett, Harvey Cross, Lucy, Milnor Cross, Roy H., Harvey Dahlbeck, Julia Alfreda, Oakes Dains, Vina, LaMoure Dallen, Bessie, Jamestown Daniels, Sophia M., Marion Day, Mrs. Flora, Medina Dean, Anna, LaMoure Dean, Austie, LaMoure Dean, Carrie St. J., Hatton Dennison, Mary Kathrine, Jamestown Deskins, Nanna, Long Prairie, Minn. Dierck, E. Dorthy, Eckelson Divers, Roy, Lloyd Divers, Virginia, Liberty Dobrinz, Emma W., Mapleton Dodd. Agnes, Charles City, Iowa Dodge, Bertha T., Wilcox, Sask., Canada Drummond, Jane, Heron Duncan, Jessie M., Josephine Dunning, Fannie, Jamestown Duntley, Bessie Cynthia, Grandin Durkan, Anna C, Jamestown Dyste, Emma C, Forman Dyste, Nellie H., Forman Eberhardt, Corienne Louise, Anamoose Edd, Elba T. I., Milnor Edwards, Emma Mav, Courtenay Eiken, Mary M., Taylor Elder, Lilly, Eckelson Eldridge, Bertha M , Valley City Ellestad, Maybelle Belinda, Kindred Ell, Clara, Jamestown Ellsworth, Flossie, Anamoose Elmgren, Voila, Sheyenne Emery, Angle B., Valley City Empie, Lola, Trotter Enos, Winnifred, Brookings, S. D. Ensey, Kathryne, Valley City Erickson, Anna, Verndale, Minn. Erlandson, Josephine, Helena Esby, Alma M., ValleyCity Farley, Maude A., Spiritwood Farrell, Anna R., Hazelton Faulkner, Alma, Pingree Faulkner, Mary, Pingree Faust, Aurora, Valley City Faust, Tyra, Valley City Fay, Clara A., Farley, Iowa Ferguson, Florence, Anamoose Fernyhough, Leeda, Hansboro Field, Edna A., Valley City Field, Arthur Earl, LaMoure Fieldman, Iva B., Aetna Fields, Flossie M., Tiffany Fieldstad, Rose C., Lisbon Figgins, Jessie C, Warwick Fitzgerald, Edward, Valley City Fleek, Maude Irene, Elmgrove Fletcher, Myrtle, Valley City Flynn, Cassie Eva, Eckelson Flynn, Frances, Jamestown Flynn, Mary, Jamestown Folkestad, Laura, Valley City Follansbee, Christine, Charles City, Iowa Forbes, Gladys, Washburn Forberge, Anna, Fargo Ford, Margaret, New Rockford Foster, Lucile Lillian. Valley City Fowler, Bessie. Center Fox, Edgar B., Valley City Franeke, Kate R., Caledonia, Wis. Freeman, S. Lilja, Upham Freeman, Elfin, Sheldon Fullmore, Elfie, Sheldon Freg, Edna, Jamestown Fritz, Bruce S., Sheyenne Frogen, Agnes, Glover Frogen, Boletha, Oakes Friglass, Anne, Aneta Funfar, Mary L , Glenville, Minn. Furgeson, Marie, Valley City Gale, Jessie E., Valley City Galegher, Alice, Thompson Galegher, Myrtle, Thompson Gerrity, Mae Agnes, Wheelock Getchell, Millie/ Valley City Gibson, Vena, Brainerd, Minn. Gilbertson, Anna E., Cogswell Gilbertson, Ovida, Hickson Gillespie, Kathrine, Velva Gillies, Clara, Valley City Gleason, Eulalia, Medina Gleason, Mrs. Margaret, Medina Gohdes, Augusta, Davenport Graber, Ida, Hensel Granger, Clifford J., Valley City Gray, Edna, Hope Gray, Georgia E., Hope Greene, F. G., Rogers Grindsbuen, Iver I., Maple City, Mich. Gronbeck, Hennie Marie, Plumer Gubrud, Anna Tower City VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Gronvold, Anna G., Sheyonne Gunderson, Signa, Valley City Gustafson, Ella, Washburn Hass, Dora B., New Rockford llagen, Ida T. C, Cooperstown . Martin S., Ft. Ransom Haldorson, Margaret, Mountain Halverson, Agnes, River Falls, Wis. Halverson, Grace, Baldwin, Wis. Hanna, Warren L., Valley City Hansen, Alvida L., Mand'an Hansen, Hilma S., Mandan Hanson, Esther, Jamestown Hanson, Sven, Kensel Harden, Delia M., Breckenridge, Minn. Harris, Lizzie H., McCluskey Hatcher, May Napoleon Hayden, Sadie, Jamestown Healy, Susie, Gilby Heiertz, Christine Mary, St. James, Minn. Hegg, Anna, Courtenay Heimes, Clara Frances, Valley City Henderson, Jennie G., Dazey Hendrickson, Emma N., Mandan Hennessy, Mae, Ambrose Henry, Georgia, Valley City Herziger, Genevieve L., Valley City Heskett, Liva J., Pinto Hickner, Irene L., Colgan Higgins, Bennet, LaMoure Hjorth, Louise, Kensel Hoflen, Mabel C, Rutland Hoggarth, Florence, Hannaford Hohaus, Grace, Forman Hohaus, Ida E., Forman Hollingsworth, Ethel A., Cleveland Holmile, Clare, Larson Holmquist, Amy H., Underwood Homme, Lena, Shevenne Holt, Ella A., Voltaice Horn, Johanna, Carrington Horte, Nora S., Velva Howard. Leona, Elm wood, Wis. Howe, Mabel Eleanor, Glover Howell, Georgia, Elliott Hrabe, Nettie, Knox Hunter, J. E. Cleveland Hubbard, Lucy Inez, Hazelton Hurley, Lula, Edgeley Hurst, Ida, St. Thomas Hustad, Sidney, Adrian Hutchings, Zoe F., Sheldon Hutchings, S. Clarissa, Sheldon Hutchison, Belle, New Rockford Ihde, Ella Fredrica, Fingal Inwood, Ella A. Irey, Fransile, Pelican Rapids, Minn. Isakson, Cora A., Ft. Ranson Iverson, Anna M., Englevale Iverson, Lillian, Newark, S. D. Jacobsen, Paula, Nome James, Iva A., Ashtubula Jennings, John R., Pigeon Falls, Wis. Jensen, Alma, Fosston, Minn. Jewett, Mary E., Center Johannsen, Malinda, McHenry Johnson, Alma, Tolley Johnson, Hilda, Cooperstown Johnson, Louise, Cooperstown Johnson, Cora L., Gem Johnson, Betsey, Cooperstown Johnson, Freda, Washburn Johnson, Georgia R., Noel Johnson, Lily jeannette, Cooperstown Johnson, Ole M., Sheldon Johnson, Sarah S., New Rockford Johnson, Alma Theoline, Fargo Johnston, Anna May, Jamestown Jones, Mabel, Valley City Jones, Joseph E., Litchville Jones, Agnes, Sanborn Jones, Rebecca E., Hankinson Kass, Louise, Hannaford Kaufman, Glade, Lisbon Keating, Celia C, Eckelson Kee, Blanche Mina, Sanborn Keeler, Salena L., Mason City, Iowa Kcine, Mildred M., New Rockford Kelly, Marie, Lawler, Iowa Kennedy, Margaret M., Regent Kenny, Kathryn, Scranton Kerber, Anna, Hannaford Kerber, Hilda, Hannaford Kimball, Lenora, Lisbon King, Inez, Gem King, Pearl, McLeod Kirkpatrick, Agnes D. M., Cathay Kittel, Mary Elizabeth.^ Edmunds Klier, Emma Louise, Bisbee Klope, Selma Margaret, Eldridge Kloubec, Carrie A., LaMoure Klubben, Regina, Cooperstown Klubben, Bertha, Cooperstown Knapp, Marjorie E., Lisbon Kraemer, Emma, Goodrich Kramer, Margaret L., Valley City Kramer, Sophia G., Valley City Krogan, Emma, Litchville Kruse, Marie, Jamestown Kuhlmeier, Matilda, Bowdon Kulilemeyer, Meta, Lanona Kuntz, Florence, Valley City Kuntz, Otto, Valley City Kupperschnidt, Maggie, Jamestown Lahlum, Edith, Valley City Lander, Mathilda J., Cooperstown Lannon, Grace, Valley City Larsen, Ella C, Hope, Larsen, Louella, La Crosse, Wis. Larsen, Ragnhild E., Fargo Larson, Anna B., Minneota, Minn. Larson, Matilda Gertrude, Lynd, Minn. Larson, Augusta M., Glover Langen, Elva, Rushford, Minn. Lea, Nellie M., Adrain Leppert, Fred, Alexander Libakken, Ida, Forman Linstad, Lena Sims Little, Anna K., Floyd Livingston, Anna M., Hope Livingston, Belle, Hope Loury, Martha E., Hankinson Luessen, Alma, Valley City j Lund, Jean P , Powers Lake Lusk, Iola Agnes, Edmunds Lyken, Agnes, Cogswell McAusker, Grace, Lisbon McCann, Margaret, Verona McCulloch, Clarence Earl, Cooperstown McCullough, Lois, Milton McCurdy, Maurice E., Leal McCuskS , Cathrine, Lisbon McDonell, Amy Winefred, Valley City McDowall, Lila, Carson McGinnes, Edith F., Dogtooth McGraw, Vera. Cogswell Mclntyre, Thos. A., Valley City McKnight, Ethyl, Langdon McLees, Wilma, Sheldon McLeod, Mary Louise, Wolf Point, Mont McMartin, Alice, St. Thomas McMartin, Dora, St. Thomas VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL McMichael, Belle, Hope McNeil, Byrdie B., Elysian, Minn. McPherson, Jessie M., Valley City Maasjo, Olga, Fingal Maasjo, Mabel, Fingal Manapan, Mary F., New Rockford Marr, Louise M., Leonard Marriage, Beatrice, New Rockford Marsh, Jennie, Tower City Marquart, Mabel A., Mandan Mathwig, Marie Agnes, Jamestown Maloney, Nellie I., Montrose, S. D. Meadows, Orra, Mott Melby, Thea, Elbow Lake, Minn. Meldahl, Anna, Valley City Michel, Mary, New Rockford Mickelson, Emma G., Valley City Miller, Helen, Syreston Miller, Lucy P., Dawson Milne, Ida Mae, Courtenay Moe, Anna A., Kindred Moine, Grace L., Briscoll Monahan, Kathryn, New Rockford Monahan, Elizabeth, New Rockford Monson, Anna J., Fingal Monson, Johanna F., Kindred Morley, Ethel, Goodrich Morley, Kate, Goodrich Morris, Sarah, Bismarck Morrow, Elnor Maude, Mandan Morton, Hattie M., Anamoose Morton, Roy E., Anamoose Murray, Etta E., Lisbon Murray, May, Wahpeton Myers. Gladys Honor, Hurdsfield Myhre, Mollie G., Colfax Myhve, Ida Amanda, Valley City Naaden, Rasmina, Winona Nagle, Edyth, Jamestown Nakievel, James E., Becker, Minn. Natwick, Olga H., Viroqua, Wis. Natwick, Jilda R., Viroqua, Wis. Naughtom Mary, Matteson Nelson, Cornie, Tappen Nelson, Edith, Madison, S. D. Nelson, Effie, Underwood, Minn. Nelson, Ida, Dazey Nelson, Lizzie A., Madison, S. D. Nelson, Myrtie, Bowman Nelson, Olpa, Goodrich Nepstad, Emma, Oakes Newman, Mildred E., Esmond Niland, Mattie E., McHenry Nordtorp, Emma, Manfred Norgard, Berit, Valley City Nunn, Fred A., Sheyenne Nupen, Ellen, Steele O'Brien, Mary, Jamestown Ohman, Teckla, Souris Olin, Anna H., Sims Olmsted, Orelly, Litchville Olmsted, Wm. P., Litchville Olsgard, Charlotte, McVille Olsen, Alice M., Oakes Olson, Jennie T., Valley City Olson, Isabelle M., Hastings Ostering, Florence, Blue Grass Overton, Iva E., Hobson Ozbin, Marie Taye, Flasker Palmer, Nellie M., LaMoure Parker, Lyle, Earlville, Iowa Peake, George T., Valley City Pederson, Bessie, Wimbledon Pederson, Dena, Nome Pendroy, Beatrice, Villand Pcricle, Grayce, Milnor Pericle, Stella, McLeod Peterson, Adolph S., Litchville Peterson, Anna Laura, Jamestown Peterson, Hattie Elizabeth, Hudson, Wis. Peterson, Nina C, St. Ansgar, Iowa Peterson, Mrs. Will, Mooretown Peterson, Anna M., Hannaford Peterson, Jennv, McHenry Phillips, Myrtle, Chaffee Pich, Lillie M., Enderlin Pierson, Lillian Irene, Sheyenne Plummer, Delia E., Maza Pollow, Gertrude Mae, Carrington Pomranke, Laura I., Sheyenne Posey, Alice, Courtenay Prine, Ruth E., Woolnough, Minn. Qualey, Ruth Amelia, Valley City Quail, Selma, Lisbon Rabhes, Maybell, Pingree Raettig, Lillian, Carrington Radtke, Martha O., Ypsilanti Randall, Gran tie E., Trettim Ratzlaff, Charlotte K. L., Valley City Ratzlaff, Minnie, Valley City Raymond, Ethel M. Reagan, Alice, Jamestown Reed, Joseph Francis, Stivenson Reiner, Fred J.. Geneseo, 111. Reilly, Ora, LaMoure Reiten, Lena S., Hastings Reiten, Oley L., Kathryn Rhinehart, Alice. Anselm Richart, Blanche B., Kensel, Rickerd, Birdie, Collins Riebe, Lydia, Pingree Riemer, Charlotte, Jamestown Rognaldson, Ella C, Enderlin Rorvig, Olga B., Mose Rorvig, Lottie, Mose Rothenberg, Emma, Marion Rude, Chester Arthur, Valley City Rutherford, Jane, Sheldon Ryden, Florence J., Kensel Saldin, Hilder, Dawson, Minn. Sandberg, Clara A., Valley City Sandberg, Delia, Valley City Sarvis, Ewart S., Lanona Sarvis, Olive M., Lanona Sauer, Mary V., Fingal Saunders, Jean N., Doyon Savage, Sara J., Fargo Scanton, Esther, Marion Schafer, Joseph, Chilton, Wis. Scheldrup, Frances, Cogswell Schies, Angilina, Ypsilanti Schmid, Pearle R., LaMoure Schmidt, Lena Katherine, Abercrombie Schmidt, Stella, Montpelier Schony, Carrie, Steele Schroeder, Clara S., Valley City Schroeder, Corelia, Valley City Schuster, Anna, Calio Schwelling, Theresa, Valley City Scott, Emma Agnes, Wogansport Seastrand, Genevieve, Sheyenne Seivert, May A., Lynchbvirg Selden, Chas. W., Vallev Citv Selden, Eleanor B., Valiey City Sellie, Clara, Sorkness Sellie, Huldah, Sorkness Serbo, Nora S., Reynolds Seversen, Annie, Kathryn Seymour, Maud, Kramer Shadduck, Virran, Vallev City Shaw Ethel Maude, Sheldon Shaw, Mildred, Harvey VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Shea, Julia, Sheldon Shennun, Annie, Tower City Sherlock, Kathryn, Valley City Sherry, Katherine, Valley City Shipstead, Laura, Georgeville, Minn. Shirk, Jay B., Hurdsfield Sievert, Anna, Marshall Simonsen, Jenny O., Wahpeton Sisell, Esther M., Garrison Siverts, Catherine, Marshall Sjulli, Elvira, Litchville Skidmore, Mrs. Nettie, Valley City Skipton, Clara Lucile, Kasota, Minn. Small, Helen Mitchell, Crary Smedshammer, Cora, Litchville Smedshammer, Carrie, Litchville Smedshammer, Gine, Litchville Smith, Elaine Rose, New Rockford Gooderstrom, Victoria, Griffin Sortlard. Rachel, Litchville Sowden, Emma, Valley City Spanfler, Anna, Jamestown Stafford, Maude R., New Rockford Stahlem, Mamie Florence, Valley City Stai, Lena, Cooperstown Stauffer, Hazel L., Dazey Stauffer, Ava E., Dazey Stauton, Edna H., New Rockford Steinback, Elizabeth, New Rockford Stillings, Mabel, Valley City Stillman, Marnie, Detroit, Minn. Strong, Ella Florence, Cando Strong, Ethel S., Milnor Stuewig, Delia, Valley City Stuff, Dorothy, Jamestown Sullivan, Ruth, McCluskey Sullivan, Elizabeth, McCluskey Susses, Flora B., Hope Sutterlin, Lena S., St. Thomas Sutterlin, Lily E., St. Thomas Swanson, Axel F., Valley City Swanson, Bessie, Chaseley Swanson, Matilda, Ettrick, Wis. Swenson, Nora Ovida, Valley City Swigginn, Ella, Viroqua, Wis. Tabbert, Anna E., Sanborn Tangen, Peter C, Pekin Tangney, Maggie M., Edmunds Tangney, Nora E.. Edmunds Taylor, J. F., Leal Taylor, Mary A., Dazey Teague, Sara M., Charlson Thomson, Elizabeth A., Pingree Thoreson, Esther, Hannaford Thorud, Margaret, Kathryn Thune, Mrs. Marie C, Kathryn Tillson, Florence S., Carrington Tollefson, Arthur, Finley Torbenson, Emma, Lisbon Toriin, Dora, Sheldon Truax, Clara M., Steele Truax, Verna E., Steele Trude, Josephine, Detroit, Minn. Turney, Austin H., Russell Ufer, Anna, Leonard Ulrich, Louise, St. Peter, Minn. Van Passell, Ginevia, Jamestown Vie, Mrs. Elsora, Braddock Wagle, Anna M., Valley City Wagle, Marie, Valiev City Wagle, Oliva, Valley City Walberg, Jennie, Hannaford Walker, Bessie Maie, Ft. Ransom Walker, Lettie J., Ft. Ransom Walker, Corrol L., Grand Rapids, Mich. Walton, Angie, Carrington Wampler, Richard Lee, Bainbridge, Ind. Wankey, William L., Cooperstown Ward, Elnora M., Edmunds Warren, Olive May, Spring Valley, Minn. Washburn, Florence Mae, Mercer Webester, Lennie, Lisbon Weiler, Louise Bertha, Lisbon Weiler, Edw. J., Lisbon Weiler, Rose Barbara, Lisbon Wetherbee, Eunice Adele, Fairmount Whalian, Emmett. Fingal Wicks, Marie A., Jamestown Wiechman, Emelv, Courtenay Wilke, Ella, Valier, Mont. Williams, Florence, Fairmount Wilson, A. C, Valley City Wilson, Troy T., Osnabroak Windtke, Emil A., Cleveland Wing, Anna E., Middle River, Minn. Woll, Henry L., Arville Wool, Mary, Barnes Woodard, Calista, Judson Wray, A. Thomas, Flora, Ind. Wunn, John William, Forman Young, Jessie Eaton, Valley City Zabel, Amanda Louise, Valley City Zabel, Elsie Estella, Valley City Conservatory of Music. HOWARD E. GOODSELL, DEAN INSTRUCTOR IN VOICE Anderson, Cuyler, Valley City Anderson, Howard, Valley City Beadle, Emily, Valiev City Blank, Etta, Valley City Brink, Ralph, Buffalo Bublitz, William, Valiev City Burkholder, Lutie V., Valley City Chambard, Una, St. James, Minn. Clark, Elizabeth, Valley City Combs, Mrs. Lee, Valley City Ensey, Katherine, Valley City Grady, Mrs. James, Valley City Grenwald, Ema, Valley City Gullickson, Bertha M., Enderlin Hyde, L. P., Valiev Citv Kasberg, Lubena, Valley City Macdonald, Mrs. K. B., Valley City McFarland, R. Kenneth, Valley City Norton, Susan, Valley City Oppegard, Carrie, Valley City Peterson, Bertha, Stanton Skorpen, Thomas, Valley City VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL JEANNETTE DEDRICK — VOICE Anderson, Cora A., Bathgate Berlin, Geraldine, Wimbledon Douglas, Laura M., Pembina Funfar, Mary L., Glenville Getchell, Levi, Valley City Lannon, Bessie, Valley City Mann, Lena. New Salem Marvel, Nellie, Brittin Miller, Emma, Fargo Morden, Mabel H , Cavalier Murray, Etta, Lisbon Nankivel, James E., Beckc- Peake, Esther, Valley City Wilson, Lubelle, Fargo MABEL E. UNDERWOOD — PIANO Barry, Aimee, Hermann, Minn. Bate, Lnis, Sanborn Blank, Etta, Valley City Brander, Jennie M., Souris Briggs, Mrs. Ed., Valley City Buchholz, Paul E., Davenport Callender, Ruth, Valley City Campbell, Cora I., Wyndmere Chaffee, Helen, Valley City Cham bard, Una, St. James Codding, Clare, Valley City Codding, Jessie, Valley City Cruden, Catherine, Amenia Eidsvig, Martha, Eastedge Fristad, Millie, Norma Gartside, E. Lydia, Glen Ullin Hageman, Mildred, Clinton, Minn. Hedstrom, Florence, Valley City Jones, Flossie, Steele Jones, Minnie C, Mercer McAndrew, Gertrude, Cogswell McFarland, Genevieve, Valley City McKay, Gladys M., Grand Harbor McLennen, Mae, Enderlin McMichael, Irene, Hope Menard, Genevieve, Wilton Meyer, Mrs. J. B., Valley City Moe, Ida, Valley City Myhro, Ida, Valley City Peterson, Annie P., Sheyenne Peterson, Bessie, Wimbledon Pound, Grace, Guildford, Mont. Scheidt, Hulda, Kulm Schulstad, Olivy, Reynolds Si verts, Minnie, Marshall Stevens, Blanche, Oakes Stevens, Faith, Oakes Stansbury, Mamie, Finley Story, Mabel, Valley City Swenson, Florence, Valley City Towne, Doris, Valley City Towne, Marian, Valley City Trotter. Lillian, Valley City Weichmann, Lucy, Courtenay LILLIAN G. HEALY — PIANO Barr, Walter, Valley City Berlin, Geraldine, Wimbledon Brindle, Laitra L., Hazelton Bublitr, Louise, Valley City Carr, Earl, Valley City Chamberlain, Florence, Valley City Downie, Florence, Lignite Hoflen, Pearl, Rutland Faust, Marcus, Valley City Getchell, Josephine, Vallev City Granger, Allen. Valley City Isensee, Mayme, Oriska Lannon, Bessie, Valley City Lovelace, Florence, Ft. Ransom Mason, Blanche G., Valley City Meldahl, Thora, Valley City Miller, Emma, Fargo Nienas, Mary, Valley City Peake, Esther A., Valley City Pray, Russell, Valley City Rathje, Esther Tower City Sutterlin. Lena, St. Thomas KNUTE FROYSAA — VIOLIN Baarstad, Peter, Valley City Borthwick, Mamie, Hamar Clare, Codding, Valley City Esby, Oliver, Valley City Foster, Lucile L., Valley City Foster, Roland, Valley City Furber, Louise, Valley City Hedstrom, Adolpha, Valley City Jensen, H. H., Valley City McAndrew, Julia, Valley City Moore, Mrs. C. E., Valley City Nelson, Lloyd, Valley City Norgaard, Ben, Valley City Olson, Carl, Valley City Oppegaard, Carl, Valley City Pray, Frances, Vallev City Pray, Ralph, Valley City Rathje, Robert, Valley City Raub, Jacob, Valley City Riebe, Helena, Pingree Schroeder, Cornelia, Valley City Skonnard, Richard, Valley City Storey, Sam, Valley City Winterer Harriet, Valley City Winterer, Hermoine, Valley City ALICE W. BENHAM — EXPRESSION Hageman, Mildred, Clinton, Minn. Hansen, Belle McAndrew, Julia, Cogswell Skonnard, Richard, Valley City Skromme, Linda, Valley City Schroeder, Cornelia, Valley City Riebe, Helena Pingree VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Students of the Model School KINDERGARTEN — TABLE III Bourbonuais Clifton, Davis, Winifred, Davidson, Victor Earley. Florence Feldman, Alfred Feldman, Milton Jacobson, Paul Lees, Dietta Miller, Elsie Neubauer, Grace Padden, Thomas Peterson, Selma Raymond, Florence Risa, Cora Shrum, Robert Spearin, Ruth Stephenson, Arthur Wessel, Dorothy KINDERGARTEN — TABLE II Bakken, Leonard Barr, Irene Bonhus, Ruth Boyd, Burton Brown Helen Englert, Beatrice Gad, Angela Mclsaacs, Joseph Padden, Margaret Root, Helen Sad, Johanna Shrum, Chester Wright, John KINDERGARTEN — TABLE I Bradley, Dorotha Combs, Lee Dean, Helen Featherstone, Nancy Flora, Frank- Greenwood, William Mhyro, Margaret Nearing, Clara Palmer, Jessie Raub, Charline Richardson, Agnes Riedman, Alice Stephenson, Donald FIRST GRADE — GROUP ONE — EIGHT Beleal, Arthur Boyd, Leonora, Burke, Jack Eggert, Myrtle Gilbertson, Carrie Lovely, John Olson, Frances Skorpen, Judith FIRST GRADE — GROUP TWO — EIGHT Arneson, Swanhild Bonhus, Jorgen Combs, James Lee, Hans McMullen, Catherine Packard, Beryl Sorras, Adolf Tyler, Fay FIRST GRADE — GROUP THREE — SEVEN Corby Gordon Dean, Edwin Hardwick, Arthur Miller, Ruth Pederson, Edwin Reidman, Rose White, Richard Bakken, Erling Burke, Charles Ferguson, Ralph Heyerdahl, Myrtle SECOND GRADE — GROUP ONE — SEVEN Johnson, Aslof Newbauer, Delois Sorros, Harold Bettin, Elsie Engdahl, Arnold Grady, Ainslee Harvey, Lenley McFarland, Pauline Miller, Annie SECOND GRADE — GROUP TWO — ELEVEN Petterson, Dagny Stephenson, Ethel Tenney, Katherine Town, Leslie Wallace, Charles VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL THIRD GRADE — FIRST GROUP — EIGHT Bettin, Alma Codding. Walter Earley, Eleanor Jacobson, Elsie Myhro, Helen Nokken, Leonard Olson, Willard Wessel, Alice THIRD GRADE — SECOND GROUP — NINE Boyd, Ella May_ DeLancey, Archie Field, Erling Nelson, Anna Sad, Anna Simenson, Kenneth Stephenson, Albert Swenson, Walter Turk, Hilda FOURTH GRADE — FIRST GROUP — SIX Anderson, Charles Armstrong, Frank Barr, Lydia Chaffee, Homer Shrum, Leone Towne, Winifred FOURTH GRADE — SECOND GROUP — FIVE Johnson, Ernest Pederson, Amanda Sec or, Robert Selden, Dorothy Sevenson, Gladys Zeilesch, Johanna SPECIAL CLASS — TWO Zeilesch, Margaret FIFTH GRADE — THIRTY ONE Hass, Agnes Anderson, Christine Anderson, Viola Axel, Carl Bakken, Myrtle Bemis, Leo Bettin, Lena Corby, Lillian Co well, Vera Earley, Alice Eggert, Herman Dilley, Paul Falstead, Florence Hart, Ruth Holzman, Dorothy Jensen, Sigfrid Johnson, Edna Johnson, Carrie Lampman, Frances Larson, John Lovely, Helen Miller, Blanche Miller, Walter Olson, Bennie Olson, Ethel Peterson, Bjorg Rhodes, Olive Sites, Elsie Swenson, Albert Towne, Harvey Wallace, Bessie SIXTH GRADE — FIFTEEN Bakken, Barney Baugeter, Rose Codding, Hu le}' Dilley, James Ferguson, Clifford Field, Gladys Larson, Frances Moe, Harry Peterson, Asta Sad, John Skorpen, Joseph Shrum, Clarence Siminson, Waldo Stephenson, Lome SEVENTH A — FOURTEEN Carlson, Selma Chaffee, Helen Corby, Porter Cowell, Vaughn Dean, Geita Ellingson, Minnie Gordon, Phoebe Jacobson, Effie Johnson, Oscar Nordgaard, Obert Rude, Marion Sites, Clarence' Skorpen, Agnes Tenney, George VALLEY CITY NORMAL SCHOOL Axel, Oscar Bettin, Anna Buck, Charles Cornish, Jennie Critchiield, Myrtle Davidson, Martha Furgeson, Fred SEVENTH B — THIRTEEN Holzman, Elsie Moe, Arthur Noltimier, Walter Norgard, Minnie Shatter, Herbert Stenshoel, Alice Bakken, Howard Engdahl, Ruth Farnham, Doris Field, Harold Glesta, Ida EIGHTH A — NINE Gusass, Helen Johnson, Olga McCready, Harley Swenson, Minnie Aas, Oliver Davidson, Palmer Heyerdahl, Carl EIGHTH B — SIX Pederson, Emma Towne, Doris Towne, Marion Armstrong, Gladys Cannon, Iva Carlson, Clarence Carr, Irl EIGHTH C — EIGHT Erickson, Helen Falstad, Hilda Lewzader, Ada Pederson, Esther Summary. NORMAL DEPARTMENT: Class of 1911 149 Special Students 23 Commercial 50 Undergraduates 400 Summer School 645 - 1267 CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC: Voice 36 Piano 66 Violin 25 Expression 7 - 134 PRACTICE SCHOOL: Kindergarten 44 First Grade 23 Second Grade 18 Third Grade 17 Fourth Grade 13 Fifth Grade 32 Sixth Grade 14 Seventh Grade 27 Eighth Grade 23 211 Total 1612 Counted twice 119 1493 ENROLLMENT BY TERMS Fall Term, 1909 487 Fall Term, 1910 500 Winter Term, 1909-10 573 Winter Term, 1910-11 541 Spring Term, 1910 424 Spring Term, 1911 458 Total 1484 Total 1499 Number in Normal Department who have taught 121 Average number of terms taught 4 Average age of students in Normal Department 20 Average age of students attending summer school 22 The following counties were represented in the institution during the school year 1910-11, not including summer school: Adams, Barnes, Benson, Billings, Bottineau, Bowman, Burleigh, Cass, Cavalier, Dickey, Divide, Dunn, Eddy, Emmons, Foster, Grand Forks, Griggs, Hettinger, Kidder, LaMoure, Logan, McHenry, McLean, Mcintosh, Morton, Nelson, Oliver, Pembina, Pierce, Ramsey, Ransom, Richland, Rolette, Sargent, Sheridan, Stark, Steele, Stutsman, Towner, Walsh, Ward, Wells and Williams. The following states were represented: Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Canada.